14 terms

sports psych.- ch. 13 (imagery)


Terms in this set (...)

imagery and ways to recreate situation to involve all senses
recreating an experience in the mind
similar to a real sensory experience
engages all senses
-not just visual
-specific, detailed
sight, sound, smell, taste, touch
kinesthetic feel
involves the mental recreation of a task prior to, while engaged in, or after the task
-the motion of the motion before it happens
-break it down, what works, what doesn't work
learned skill
-the more you practice, the easier it gets
three uses of imagery and practical examples
1) cognitive general (using strategy)
2) cognitive specific (using skills)
3) motivational specific (ex. receiving a medal)
before/after competition
during off-season
injury recovery
during personal timeac
compare and contrast of:
1) psychoneuromuscular theory
2) symbolic learning theory
3) bioinformational theory
4) triple code model
Psychoneuromuscular theory (PNM), Bioinformational theory (BI), Triple- Code model (ISM) more useful for:
well-learned task
need to know physical and emotional rxn
Symbolic learning theory (SL) more useful:
novel task, novice performance
high cognitive component in task
psychoneuromuscular theory
*imagery and actually doing it is the same thing*
suggests similar impulses occur in the brain and muscles when athletes imagine the movements with out actually performing them
-do when tired and/or injured
imagery strengthens muscle memories
- (and skill automatically)
muscles fire in the correct sequence without physically executing movement
-(for this to be true; athlete has to know what it feels like)
symbolic learning theory
do NOT have to know what it feels like
Imagery helps athletes blueprint their movements into symbolic components
makes movements more familiar and automatic
"looks the way it's supposed to look"
works well with highly cognitive task
-ex. chess player looking at all possibilities
Bioinformational theory
stimulus proposition
-(ex. possibility of walking across the beam)
-describe particular stimulus features starting point
response propositions
-(ex. thoughts after being scared)
-describes imager's response
*Each are individualized: key to theory*

How to use it:
Imagine what you would like to feel
-want to have positive thoughts
-want to have a solid physical feeling (grounded)
Triple-code model
ISM ---> Image, Somatic Response, and Meaning
-sensory realism
ex. shrinking a pitcher in your mind
Somatic Response
-how the body feels
-particularly unique
-says need to individualize all programs!
-can change
ex. batter to fail or exceed when hitting the ball or
striking out
anecdotal (people's reports of isolated occurrences) and experimental evident supporting effectiveness of imagery in improving performance, including evidence relating to the nature of the task and ability level
best athletes and national coaches use imagery in daily training regime
athletes report using imagery as way to help recover from injury
100% sports psychologist use it (effective imagery is loved in sports psychology)
90% Olympic athletes use it in some way
-97% believed it helped performance
qualitative investigations have revealed positive relationship between imagery and performance
principles of effective use of imagery would need to be incorporated into imagery studies to maximize imagery effectiveness
compare and contrast internal and external imagery and their effectiveness
Internal: athletes imagine their surroundings and behaviors from their own perspective
how your body feels, sense of texture, and sense of movement
-ex. watching water flow: relaxing somewhere where water is flowing, listening to the water flow, and smelling the clean water while relaxing. hopefully there are no smelly fish. warm rocks and wood to sit on in the cool breeze.
predicted to be most useful for acquisition and performance of tasks that depend heavily on perception and anticipation for successful execution
-more beneficial for closed tasks (ex. not stressed and stable environment)
-ex. golf

External: athletes image of the situation from the perspective of someone else and see him/herself in the image.
predicted to be most useful on effects of acquisition and performance of skills that depend heavily on form from their successful execution
-more beneficial for open tasks (time pressured, changing environment)
-ex. basketball
Imagery interventions and why it is useful psychologically and physiologically
Psychologically: improves concentration/focuses attention
practices controlling emotional response
builds confidence
(notice we talk about these in other units)

Psychically (/physiologically): practice/learn skills
induce relaxation (happy place image)
manage arousal (physical feel of anxiety)
cope with pain and injury
-keep doing sport in your head and you will heal faster
factors of effective imagery and two exercises to improve vividness and controllability
controllability: ability to control images
stop the image if it turns negative
ex. imagine specific skill that gives trouble and imagine controlling performance, picture yourself controlling performance against a tough opponent, picture yourself controlling your emotions

vividness: ability to produce vivid and realistic images
ex. imagine home, imagine a positive performance of a skill, imagine a positive performance

poly-sensory experience: ability to include different senses while doing imagery
importance of vividness and controllability in enhancing the quality of imagery
vividness: to create the actual experience as closely as possible in your mind
controllability: helps to picture what one wants to accomplish vs. seeing oneself making errors
important factors to influence effectiveness of imagery
controllability, vividness, poly-sensory experience
situational and personal factors:
including: the nature of the task
-the skill level of the performer
-the imagining ability of the person
three basic elements of a successful imagery program and why they are important
1) motivation and realistic expectations
2) before training program begins: evaluation, using an instrument such as the Sport Imagery Questionnaire
3) exercises in vividness and controllability
-should practice imagery in quiet setting, in relaxed, attentive state
-focus on developing positive images (occassionally useful to visualize failures in order to develop coping skills)
-execution and outcome of the skill would be imaged and imaging should occur in real time