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because, since, for, from the fact that, after all, it is clear from


Therefore, Thus, It is clear, It follows that, That is why, So, Consequently, Obviously, Hence, As a result, This proves that, studies suggest, This Shows, Clearly

FL: Sufficient

The only, All, Incapable, If, Any, Every, Whenever, Each

FL: Necessity

Requires, Guarantees, Must, Necessary, Bound to lead to, Are destined to, Only (if), Results in, Produces, Sure to, Then, Always, Unless

FL: Mutually Exclusive

No, Incapable, Impossible, Cannot, None, Neither...nor, Never


But, Despite, Yet, Although, However, While, Even so, Nevertheless, Whereas, On the other hand, Conversely, Instead


Remarkable, more/most important, Compelling, Substantial, Even more than


Believed by, Thought to be, Asserts, Some maintain, argues that, According to, As X sees it, The astronomers assumed


; in addition, Also, as well, similarly, likewise


: In contrast to, For Example


Since, Until recently, Recent Developments, In the past, Historically, Traditionally


Three possible explanations, there are two reasons for this, Abrams describes a fourfold structure


Because, since, This is clear from


thus, Clearly, As a result, and so

Negative Point of View

Doubtful, Unconvincing, Unlikely, Danger, Harmful

Positive Point of View

Cogent, Compelling, Promising

Uncertainty/ Qualification

Seems, Appears, Mysterious

Flawed Arguments (1)

Representativeness: Surveys/Studies-- ask if the data is truly representative of the conclusion drawn (it usually will not be)

Flawed Arguments (2)

Absolute Numbers versus Percents

Flawed Arguments (3)

Scope Shift between evidence and conclusion

Flawed Arguments (4)

Necessity versus Sufficiency

Flawed Arguments (5)

Failure to consider alternative explanations/sources

Flawed Arguments (6)

Failure to consider alternative explanations/sources

Flawed Arguments (7)

Possibility versus Certainty

Flawed Arguments (8)

One member of a group versus All members

Flawed Arguments (9)

Individual members of a group versus the group as a whole

Flawed Arguments (10)

Lack of evidence as evidence against

Flawed Arguments (11)

Inappropriate Analogy

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