28 terms


because, since, for, from the fact that, after all, it is clear from
Therefore, Thus, It is clear, It follows that, That is why, So, Consequently, Obviously, Hence, As a result, This proves that, studies suggest, This Shows, Clearly
FL: Sufficient
The only, All, Incapable, If, Any, Every, Whenever, Each
FL: Necessity
Requires, Guarantees, Must, Necessary, Bound to lead to, Are destined to, Only (if), Results in, Produces, Sure to, Then, Always, Unless
FL: Mutually Exclusive
No, Incapable, Impossible, Cannot, None, Neither...nor, Never
But, Despite, Yet, Although, However, While, Even so, Nevertheless, Whereas, On the other hand, Conversely, Instead
Remarkable, more/most important, Compelling, Substantial, Even more than
Believed by, Thought to be, Asserts, Some maintain, argues that, According to, As X sees it, The astronomers assumed
; in addition, Also, as well, similarly, likewise
: In contrast to, For Example
Since, Until recently, Recent Developments, In the past, Historically, Traditionally
Three possible explanations, there are two reasons for this, Abrams describes a fourfold structure
Because, since, This is clear from
thus, Clearly, As a result, and so
Negative Point of View
Doubtful, Unconvincing, Unlikely, Danger, Harmful
Positive Point of View
Cogent, Compelling, Promising
Uncertainty/ Qualification
Seems, Appears, Mysterious
Flawed Arguments (1)
Representativeness: Surveys/Studies-- ask if the data is truly representative of the conclusion drawn (it usually will not be)
Flawed Arguments (2)
Absolute Numbers versus Percents
Flawed Arguments (3)
Scope Shift between evidence and conclusion
Flawed Arguments (4)
Necessity versus Sufficiency
Flawed Arguments (5)
Failure to consider alternative explanations/sources
Flawed Arguments (6)
Failure to consider alternative explanations/sources
Flawed Arguments (7)
Possibility versus Certainty
Flawed Arguments (8)
One member of a group versus All members
Flawed Arguments (9)
Individual members of a group versus the group as a whole
Flawed Arguments (10)
Lack of evidence as evidence against
Flawed Arguments (11)
Inappropriate Analogy