Terms in this set (52)
how do you detect prevalence in pop?
cross-sectional study -- survey, snap shot study
when sensitivity is 100% what does that mean?
there are NO false negatives--> all negatives are true negatives
what does sensitivity do?
true positive rate?
true negative rate?
what is a high incidence rate?
if incidence increases, what happens to prevalence?
how do you measure risk of getting the disease?
INCIDENCE RATE-- direct measure of disease risk
odds ratio definition
from case control--> odds that group with disease was exposed / odds that group without disease was exposed
a/c / b/d = ad/bc
relative risk reduction equation?
1 - RR
absolute risk and absolute risk reduction?
AR: exposed risk MINUS unexposed risk
ARR: risk w/o tx - risk w/ tx (no shot - shot)
NNT and NNH
NNT = 1/ARR
NNH = 1/AR
**# of people needed for 1 person to benefit/be harmed
when pts in tx group are treated differently -- bias?
when researcher asks leading questions to get certain responses -- bias?
how do you do away with observer-expectance bias?
how do you fix confounding bias?
MATCH -- pts with similar characteristics in both group
cross over studies
difference in sample mean vs true pop mean
= SD/square root (sample size)
SD 1 -- gives you what percent?
SD 2 -- gives what %?
SD 3-- gives what %?
bimodal distribution suggests what?
2 diff pops-- fast vs slow acetylators
longer tail on R, hump on L -- opens to R
mean > median > mode -- median = better rep
tail on L
mode > median > mean -- median = better repb
1- B --> probability of rejecting the null when it is false
things that help statistical power?
increase expected effect size
increase precision of measurement
range of values that true population would most likely be in?
confidence interval = mean - SEM --> mean + SEM
compare mean of 2 groups (BP in men vs women)
compare mean of 3 groups
compare % of 2 or more groups-- affected vs not affected (those who have BP in men and women)
primary, secondary, tertiary disease prevention
who is medicare fore?
< 65 with disabilities and dependents
who is medicaid for and what is it?
state and fedearl health assistance
hours an intern can work?
80 hr weeks with 16 hr days
hours a resident can work?
80 hr weeks with 24 hr days
when can written consent be revoked?
ANY TIME!!! -- even orally
what are exceptions to informed consent?
-pt lacks decision making capacity/incompetent
-therapeutic privilege--> withholding info when disclosure would severely harm the pt or undermine informed decision making capacity
- waiver -- pt waives right
what do you not need parental consent for?
when can a POA be revoked?
ANY TIME REGARDLESS OF COMPETENCE
order of surrogate decision maker?
spouse--> adult children--> parents--> adult siblings--> other relatives
physician can directly inform and protect a potential victim from harm
tenets of good samaritan law?
no compensation at ALL
remain with pt till relieved
if a child wishes to know more about his/her illness what do you do?
ask the parents what they have told the child-- the PARENTS decide what info can be relayed about the illness
low birth weight
girls with normal development till age 1 and then regress
head growth decelerates
order that reflexes disappear?
when should infant be walking independently?
when is core gender identity formed?
36 mos --> realization
safe benzos in elderly?