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found only in heart; involuntary; acts constantly to pump blood through blood vessels
Smooth muscle appearance
fusiform in shape; no striations, but does contain actin and myosin fibers;dense bodies that attach thin filaments to the cytoskeleton
multi-unit smooth muscle
direct innervation to each unit, forms motor unit; found in large arteries and iris
sensory cells that control muscle tone through reflexive action; found withing the belly of the muscle running parallel along it and sense change in muscle length
innermost layer of CT that surrounds each muscle fiber/cell, connects them to other cells and contributes to then tendon of muscle
middle layer of CT that surrounds bundles of muscle fibers; vasculature and nervous supply traverse here; also contributes to the tendon
Outer layer of CT that covers the outside of the entire muscle; considered part of the deep fascia; separates muscle from surrounding tissue or bone; also contributes to the tendon of muscle
is a fibrous connective tissue in sheets, that attaches muscle to bone or to other muscle
a cordlike or bandlike mass of white fibrous connective tissue that connects a muscle to a bone
the cytoplasm of a striated muscle fiber; surrounds individual myofibrils of muscle fibers
network of tubules that extend inward at right angles to the sarcolemma; allow for nerve impulses to be transmitted rapidly to individual myofibrils
network of structures for the energy producing biochemical "krebs cycle" which produces ATP through oxidative phosphorylation
contractile units of the muscle fiber; cylindrical and as long as the muscle fiber; made of up long stands of repeating subunits called sarcomeres
smallest functional unit of the myofibril; composed of bundles of myofilaments; from one Z dsic to the next
thickest of the 2 myofilaments; bind parallel to one another with globular heads protruding around the circumference; centered in the sarcomere; but are connected to the Z-lines by elastic filaments
contraction that shortens the space between Z-lines(raising the barbell in a biceps curl)
either returns sarcomere to original (or resting) length or longer (lowering the barbell in a biceps curl)
no change in length, but a constant coupling/decoupling of cross-bridges(without shortening), such as carrying an object out in front of you
contraction with a change in length but the force generated remaining at a constant(all lifting exercise)
myofilament about 1nm in diameter composed of a giant protein, titin, that flanks a thick filament and anchors it to a Z-disc; centers and stabilizes the thick filament and prevents overstretching
troponin and myosin; proteins that do not directly engage in the sliding filament process of muscle contraction, but regulate myosin-actin binding
springy protein that forms the elastic filaments and anchors the thick filaments to the Z discs
protein is important in maintaining the integrity of muscle fiber. absence cuases muscular dystrophy
neurotransmitter released by vesciles from the axon that bind to receptors on the sarcolemma which set up an action potential and causes the muscle to contract
enzyme that catalyzes breakdown of acetylcholine, preventing sustained muscle contraction from a single nerve impulse
Rings that provide a strong connection between cardiac muscle cells, to prevent tears and leaks in the heart.
the structure that allows smooth muscle to generate intracellular contractile tension; analogous to z-line
smooth muscle tone
smooth-muscle tension due to low-level cross-bridge activity in absence of external stimuli
the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
Binding of myosin to actin, powerstroke, rigor, unbinding, cocking of the myosin heads
motor units are alternated (so muscle won't fatigue as fast) to maintain force production at given level
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