Modern Republicans
A new breed of republicans who believe in the economic theory of Reaganomics. This theory holds that reduced income tax rates increase GDP growth and thereby generate more revenue for the government from the taxes on the extra growth. Bush
Oveta Culp Hobby
The first secretary of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, first commanding officer of the Women's Army Corps, and chairman of the board of the Houston Post. During WWII she was the first woman in the Army to receive this award. President Dwight D. Eisenhower named her head of the Federal Security Agency
Soil Bank Program
1956-1960 The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) was initiated in 1956 as one part of the Soil Bank Act. Thus, the original CRP was commonly referred to as the ``Soil Bank Program.'' (SB) The SB was designed to divert land regularly used for crop production to conservation uses. SB enrolled 28.7 million acres nationwide. 2.2 mil planter trees
Highway Act (1956); Interstate highway system
Popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act. It appropriated $25 billion for the construction of 41,000 miles of interstate highways over a 10-year period, it was the largest public works project in American history to that point. The money was handled in a highway trust fund that paid for 90 percent of highway construction costs with the states required to pay the remaining 10 percent. It was expected that the money would be generated through new taxes on fuel, automobiles, trucks and tires. It is said he drew six lines (three vertical and three horizontal) on a piece of paper and told his people to base their freeway system on it.
John Foster Dulles
Became Secretary of State under Eisenhower in 1953. Cold Warrior who supported "massive retaliation," brinksmanship, and preemptive strike. In 1951 he was author of Japanese peace treaty. during WWII, from 1949-1959
Brinkmanship was used first by the US Secretary John Foster Dulles during the Cold War regarding his policy against the Soviet Union. Dulles defined the policy of brinkmanship as "the ability to get to the verge without getting into the war". His critics blamed him for damaging relations with communist states and contributing to the Cold War.
Massive retaliation
This was a term coined by John Foster Dulles. Dulles stated that the U.S. would respond to military provocation "at places and with means of our own choosing." This was interpreted to mean that the U.S. could respond to any foreign challenge with nuclear weapons. Dulles also said that "Local defense must be reinforced by the further deterrent of massive retaliatory power." This quote forms the basis for the term massive retaliation, which would back up any conventional defense against conventional attacks with a possible massive retaliatory attack involving nuclear weapons.
Third World
A synonym for those nations that aligned themselves with neither the West nor with the Soviet Bloc during the Cold War. Thus, the Non-Aligned Movement was created after the 1955 Bandung Conference.
British and Soviet forces occupied Iran. American troops later entered Iran to handle the delivery of war supplies to the USSR. At the Tehran Conference in 1943 the Tehran Declaration, signed by the United States, Great Britain, and the USSR, guaranteed the independence and territorial integrity of Iran. However, the USSR, dissatisfied with the refusal of the Iranian government to grant it oil concessions, fomented a revolt in the north which led to the establishment of the People's Republic of Azerbaijan and the Kurdish People's Republic, headed by Soviet-controlled leaders. When Soviet troops remained in Iran following the expiration of a wartime treaty that also allowed the presence of American and British troops, Iran protested to the United Nations. The Soviets finally withdrew after receiving a promise of oil concessions from Iran subject to approval by the parliament. The Soviet-established governments in the north, lacking popular support, were deposed by Iranian troops late in 1946, and the paiament subsequently rejected the oil concessions
Covert action
A military or political activity performed in secrecy that would break specific laws or compromise policy in another country. Covert operations are almost always illegal in the target state and are sometimes in violation of the laws of the enacting country.
The federation was accepted in Cambodia and Laos. Vietnamese nationalists, however, demanded (1945) the complete independence of Annam, Tonkin, and Cochin China as Vietnam, and after Dec., 1946, these regions were plunged into bitter fighting between the French and the extreme nationalists, oftentimes led by Communists. The war in Vietnam dragged on for years, culminating in the French defeat at Dienbienphu. The Geneva Conference in 1954 effectively ended French control of Indochina.
Geneva Conference
The Second Geneva Naval Conference was a conference held to discuss naval arms limitation, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1932. Sixty nations, including USA, USSR and Germany, came to the conference wanting a reduction in general arms. Some progress was made, but when Hitler came into power in 1933 he took Germany out of the Geneva Conference and the League of Nations, which was questionable but nothing was done about it. The Geneva conference split the nation of Vietnam roughly in half along the seventeenth parallel, and established a shaky peace in the nation of Laos.
Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese leader who had led the resistance against the Japanese during WW II and at the end of the war had led the uprising against the French Colonial government. He had traveled in Europe, educated in Moscow, and was an ardent Communist. Became President of the North Vietnamese government established after the French withdrawal. Often called the George Washington of North Vietnam
The Best Country Ever. A military conflict in present day Vietnam occurring from 1959 to April 30, 1975. The conflict was a successful effort by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the indigenous National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, to impose on Vietnam a communist system, defeating the South Vietnamese Republic of Vietnam (RVN).
Domino theory
A 20th Century Foreign Policytheory, promoted by the government of the United States that speculated if one land in a region came under the influence of Communists, then more would follow in a domino
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (1954) SEATO
Asian version of NATO, created to block Communist expansion into Southeast Asia. Its HQ was located in Bangkok, Thailand.
Suez Canal crisis (1956)
When Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal, the UK and France feared losing the use of the canal, which allowed the shipping of 2/3s of Europe's oil. They conspired with Israel to let the Israelis (who had bad relations with Arabs in general) invade the canal, allowing the English and French to intervene and declare the tenuous canal under Anglo-French protection. When the US refused to back England, they were forced to withdraw.
Eisenhower Doctrine
Stated that the US would employ military response to imminent or actual aggression against the country. The US would also supply various forms of aid to countries opposed to communism.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting (OPEC)
Organization or major oil-producing nations, including Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Iraq, Iran, etc...founded to safeguard their economic interests by stabilizing international oil prices, ensuring a regular supply of petroleum to consumer nations, and a fair return on their capital to those investing in the industry.
Open-skies crisis
Eisenhower proposed an Open Skies treaty to allow unarmed aerial surveillance flights over the entire territory of participating nations. It was meant to allow mutual gathering of information about military activities to assure member nations that a country was not preparing for an attack. Nikita Khruschev, Commie bastard that he was, rejected the proposal.
Nikita Khrushchev
Sought better political relations with noncommunist countries. After the harsh leadership of Joseph Stalin, Khrushchev allowed the Soviet people more freedom. He opened up trade with other countries in the world and tried to improve the quality of life in the Soviet Union.
Hungarian Revolt
Oct. 29,1956, 200,000 Soviet soldiers and hundreds of tanks swept into Hungary to repress a popular uprising demanding democratic reforms. Eisenhower felt it was too risky to have the military intervene with a country so close to the Soviet border.
Warsaw Pact
The organization was the Soviet bloc's equivalent of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Soviets intensified their military domination of Eastern Europe by pouring in massive aid to Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria to accelerate industrialization and increase Soviet control.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Civil-rights organization founded in 1957 by Martin Luther King, Jr., and headed by him until his assassination in 1968. Composed largely of African-American clergy from the South and an outgrowth of the Montgomery, Ala., bus boycott that King had led, it advocated nonviolent passive resistance as the means of securing equality for African Americans. It sponsored the massive march on Washington in 1963.
October, 1957 - The first artificial satellite sent into space, launched by the Soviets.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Independent U.S. government agency established in 1958 for research and development of vehicles and activities for aeronautics and space exploration. Its goals include improving human understanding of the universe, the solar system, and Earth and establishing a permanent human presence in space.
U-2 Incident
In U.S. and Soviet history, the events following the Soviet downing of an American U-2 high altitude reconnaissance aircraft over Soviet territory on May 1, 1960. The incident led to the collapse of a proposed summit conference between the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and France in Paris. President Eisenhower's initial claim that he had no knowledge of such flights was difficult to maintain when the Soviets produced the pilot, Francis Gary Powers, who had survived the crash. Eisenhower met Khrushchev's demand for an apology by suspending U-2 flights, but the Soviet Premier was not satisfied and the summit was canceled. Powers was sentenced to ten years in prison, but was released in 1962 in exchange for convicted Soviet spy Rudolph Abel.
Fidel Castro
A band of insurgents led by Fidel Castro succeeded in overthrowing the corrupt government of Juan Baptista, and Cuba became Communist.
Military-industrial complex
Symbiotic relationship between a nation's armed forces, its private industry, and associated political and commercial interests. In such a system, the military is dependent on industry to supply material and other support, while the defense industry depends on government for a steady revenue stream; gained popularity after its use in the farewell address of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. As pejorative terms, the "MIC" or the "iron triangle" refer to an institutionalized collusion among defense contractors (industry), The Pentagon (military), and the United States government (Congress, Executive branch), as a cartel that works against the public interest, and whose motivation is profiteering.
Jackie Robinson
First African-American Major League Baseball player of the modern era in 1947. The Baseball Hall of Fame inducted Robinson in 1962 and he was a member of six World Series teams. Jackie earned six consecutive All-Star Game nominations and won several awards during his career
Established in 1909 by a group of African Americans (led by W.E.B. DuBois) who joined with white reformers. The NAACP called for an end to racial discrimination, attacked Jim Crow laws, and fought to overturn the 1896 Supreme Court decision Plessy v. Ferguson. In the 1920s, it served as a counterpoint to the more radical black rights group, the UNIA, led by Marcus Garvey.
Process of ending racial segregation; focus of the American Civil Rights Movement, both before and after the United States Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education, particularly desegregation of the school systems and the military
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
The Supreme Court reversed Plessy v. Ferguson in 1954 by ruling in favor of the desegregation of schools. The court held that "separate but equal" violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and was unconstitutional. Refusing to force the white south to accept the ruling, defiance toward the law sprang up. Many southerners saw it as "an abuse of judiciary power."
Earl Warren
Chief Justice Earl Warren the Supreme Court asserted its right to review and declare unconstitutional legislation that it believed infringed on individual rights. A group of liberal judges—especially William O. Douglas, Hugo Black, and William J. Brennan, Jr.—formed a powerful coalition in favor of liberal ideas. The Court disallowed the use of the poll tax in state and local elections and in 1967struck at he core of white supremacy doctrine by declaring laws prohibiting interracial marriages to be unconstitutional
Little Rock Crisis
U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education that segregated schools are "inherently unequal." In September 1957, as a result of that ruling, nine African-American students enrolled at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. The conflicts this event caused earned it the "crisis" label
Rosa Parks
December 1955 - In Montgomery, Alabama, she refused to give up her bus seat for a White man as required by city ordinance. It started the Civil Rights Movement and an almost nation-wide bus boycott lasting 11 months.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
A political and social protest campaign started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. The ensuing struggle lasted from December 5, 1955, to December 21, 1956, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses unconstitutional.
Civil rights acts of 1957, 1960
Primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted in the United States since Reconstruction The Civil Rights Act of 1957 was largely ineffective in its enforcement and its scope. Statistical history notes that by 1960, slightly fewer blacks were voting in the South than had been in 1956. It did however open the door to later legislation that was effective in ending legal segregation and providing housing rights. The Civil Rights Act of 1960 was a United States federal law that established federal inspection of local voter registration polls and introduced penalties for anyone who obstructed someone's attempt to register to vote or actually vote.
Civil rights commission
To investigate complaints alleging that citizens are being deprived of their right to vote by reason of their race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin, or by reason of fraudulent practices. To issue public service announcements to discourage discrimination or denial of equal protection of the laws.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Civil-rights organization founded in 1957 by Martin Luther King, Jr., and headed by him until his assassination in 1968. Composed largely of African-American clergy from the South and an outgrowth of the Montgomery, Ala., bus boycott that King had led, it advocated nonviolent passive resistance as the means of securing equality for African Americans. It sponsored the massive march on Washington in 1963.
Nonviolent Protest
Typically involves such activities as mass demonstrations, refusal to obey or carry out a law or to pay taxes, the occupation of buildings or the blockade of roads, labor strikes, economic boycotts, and similar activities to force a change or secure concessions and is the main tactic of civil disobedience.
Consumer Culture
To those who accept the idea of consumerism, these products are not seen as valuable in themselves, but rather as social signals that allow them to identify like-minded people through consumption and display of similar products. Few would yet go so far, though, as to admit that their relationships with a product or brand name could be substitutes for the healthy human relationships lacking in dysfunctional modern societies.
David; Reisman, The Lonely Crowd
How the increasing power of corporate and government organizations influenced national character. He produced a literate and daringly speculative book, altogether different from the narrow and nervously guarded assemblies of statistical data that often make sociology a synonym for dreariness.
John Kenneth Galbraith, The Affluent Society
The most widely-read economist of the twentieth century. The author of four dozen books and over one thousand articles, he was on the faculty of Harvard University from 1934 to 1975, and served in the administrations of Franklin Roosevelt, Harry Truman, John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Baines Johnson. From 1961 to 1963, he served as Ambassador to India.
The term beat generation was introduced by Jack Kerouac in approximately 1948 to describe his social circle to the novelist John Clellon Holmes (who published an early novel about the beat generation, titled Go, in 1952, along with a manifesto of sorts in the New York Times Magazine: "This is the beat generation").