33 terms

Chapter 9 Forensic Science Bertino

Drug Identification and Toxicology
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controlled substance
a drug or other chemical compound whose manufacture, distribution, possession, and use is regulated by the legal system
drug
a chemical substance that affects the processes of the mind or body; a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of a disease; a substance used recreationally for its effects on the mind or body, such as a narcotic or hallucinogen
narcotic
an addictive dug, such as opium, that relieves pain, alters mood and behavior, and causes sleep or feelings of mental numbness
poison
a naturally occurring or manufactured substance that can cause severe harm or death if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin
toxicity
the degree to which a substance is poisonous or can cause injury
toxin
a poisonous substance naturally produced by certain plants, animals, and bacteria that is capable of causing disease or death in humans; a subgroup of posions
acute poisoning
means a person had single exposure to the poison, marked by short duration and high dose.
chronic poisoning
long-term repeated or continuous exposure to a poison where symptoms do not occur immediately or after each exposure
Cocaine Brain
Addict has to take cocaine for brain activity to look normal. When not on cocaine, brain activity looks lower than normal.
main classes of drugs
Stimulants, Depressants, Narcotics, Hallucinogens, Steroids
Schedule of Drugs
schedule 1, high potential for abuse, purposes for research only. 2. high potential for abuse, but for medical use. 3. moderate or low dependency,accepted for treatment.4. accepted medical treatment.5.less potential then 4.
pesticides
Any one of various substances used to kill harmful insects (insecticide), fungi (fungicide), vermin, or other living organisms that destroy or inhibit plant growth, carry disease, or are otherwise harmful. DDT was a common general use pesticide made of chlorine and hydrocarbons that is now banned in the USA. Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring" lead to increase scrutiny of these "non-selective" pesticides.
bioterrorism agents
Biological weapons used in bio-terrorism are living microorganisms that can kill or incapacitate such as: bacteria, viruses, fungi, and toxins. Examples are
smallpox, anthrax, plague, botulism toxin, tularemia bacteria, hemorrhagic fever virus.
CDC lists agents into Category A,B or C
Strains of these bio-agents can be identified by sections of their DNA.
nerve cell communication
Chemical messaging transported across the synaptic cleft triggered by electric impulses in the axon.
dopamine
A neurotransmitter released in response to behaviors that feel good or are rewarding to the person or animal; also involved in voluntary motor control.
reward pathways
the neural pathways believed to be associated with positive reinforcement, including memory and behavior pathways.
botulism
-The most potent toxin known to man
drug interactions
One drug modifies the action of another which can be dangerous or deadly
stimulants
Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
hallucinogens
A diverse group of drugs that have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning, marked most prominently by distortions in sensory and perceptual experience.
alcohols
Turned to Acetaldehyde in the body. All types become toxic to the body.
drug testing
A technical analysis of a biological specimen - for example urine, hair, blood, sweat, breath or oral fluid / saliva - to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites.
ways to take drugs
Ingested, smoked, snort, inject, absorbed by skin. Fastest action is via injection.
narcotics
Drug substance, either derived from opium or produced synthetically, that alters perception of pain and that with repeated use may result in physical and psychological dependence.
hair analysis
Neutron Activation Analysis tests for diseases and disorders. It is also used to test poisoning and drug abuse as it records the chemicals and drugs taken over a long period.
venom
organic toxin secreted by an animal that can be transferred to a human. Example is snake, spider, and wasp. Usually absorbed through skin or intestines.
anabolic steroids
Drugs that mimic the male sex hormone testosterone and promote bone and muscle growth. Synthetics engineered originally to treat people with muscle loss due to disease.
heavy metals
Metals with relatively high atomic weight. Pose health hazards to people and ecosystems include mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, selenium, vanadium, chromium, and thallium among others.
DDT
A colorless odorless water-insoluble crystalline insecticide that tends to accumulate in ecosystems and has toxic effects on many vertebrates; became the most widely used pesticide from WWII to the 1950's; implicated in illnesses and environmental problem; now banned in the US.
Rachel Carson
"Silent Spring" author who sparked a environmentalist movement She questioned the long term effects of DDT and other pesticides.
non-selective pesticide
chemicals that destroy a wide variety of plant and insect pests. In addition to the pesticide's effect on non-target pests, the treatment may have additional negative environmental effects.
mad hatters disease
chronic mercury poisoning, named because it occured in the 1800's among hatmakers whose felting work involved prolonged exposure to mercury vapors
organic
farming that generally features practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity. Farms must demonstrate that they are protecting natural resources, conserving biodiversity, and using only approved substances.

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