THTR-3011 Test 1
THTR 3011 - Summer 2015
Terms in this set (99)
when words can no longer express the emotion, the body sings; when song isn't enough, the body dance
- Music = Expression + Heightened Emotion
music and lyric on the same pages
story, characters, script(spoken dialog); written by the librettist
designed dance steps or movement on stage; created by the choreographer
vocal music sung without accompaniment
lower pitched female voice
the range between alto and soprano for females
the highest pitched female and boys' voices
the high, natural male voice
the lowest or deepest male voice
song or section of a song sung by two voices
Musical number in which several characters sing separate melodies simultaneously; the number is structured so that each melody or voice is given the same weight (west story before the fight)
Slow, romantic song
sung speech in opera that drives the action forward
the arranging of music for the orchestra; also the set of written music or parts for the same
The golden triangle
words: story, dialog, lyrics
action: dance, physicality
a preceding circumstance, event object, style, phenomenon, etc.
all that came before
Ancient Greek Theatre
major influence for all western theatre
Spectacle : Masks
introduction of the chorus (choral songs and choral dances)
dramatic work (usually tragic)
primarily sung (arias and recitative) with orchestral accompaniment, opulent staging
used popular tunes with rewritten lyrics
spoken dialog instead of recitative
- European Antecedents
- "little opera"
- comic or romantic plots
- dialog instead of recitative (usually)
- happy endings, simple plots
- presentational acting style : interaction between audience
W.S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan
- lyricist/librettist and composer, respectively
- Patter song (style)
- Introduced: Reflective song
- Active song
Musical number with lyrics made up of many words, sung at very rapid tempo
- a character, thinking aloud and wrestling with a problem, comes to a realization, undergoes a change, and progresses emotionally throughout vocal performance of the song
- static song, in terms of dramatic action, which describes, recollects , or reflects on a situation
- American Antecedents
-!! Music drama
- spoken text, action had musical underscoring
- Poetic Justice
- contrived plot: very comfortable to the audience, you know who is good/bad and how it will end
Good guys always win, bad guys always lose
"The Black Crook"
- First ever Melodrama (Leg show)
- Bad production, but added ballad dancers due to a theater firing
- million dollar hit! , milestone
dominant composer of the early American stage
conductor AND composer AND orchestrator
most popular form of entertainment from 1850-1870
white male performers in blackface
!! Mr. Tams/ Mr. Interlocutor / Mr. Bones/
a series of songs and sketches (and often dances) usually linked by a theme. May be the work of one individual or songwriting team) or might be written by numerous artists
most successful and influential producer of the early 20th century
- Florenz Ziegfeld
- Found a Body-builder to display muscle
- sex sells!
- Florenz Ziegfeld
- Series of Revue
- Theme: Glorifying the american girl
- set the standard for female sexuality throughout the 20th century (certain height, certain body-size)
- Ziegfeld's girl
- Hired by Ziegfeld
- One of the most popular comedians of all time
- signature number "Nobody"
- Perform in Minstrelsy
Tin Pan Alley
- Get its name because so many publishers were playing music in the alley, sound like "Tin Pan"
- Song Plugger
- Individual go from place to place who wants to sell music
- acting on behave of the producer to convince the real producers to buy the song
American Society for Composers, Authors, and Publishers
formed in 1914
financial split: publisher 50% authors (composer/lyricist) split 50%
Series of unrelated acts (variety show)
Negative Stereotypes of Minority Groups
2-3 shows per day with 8 to 16 "turns" (acts) per show
acts traveled from theatre to theatre across the country: the "circuit"
Circuit got its name because Vaudeville performance circling the country
1890-1920 Most popular form of entertainment in the U.S.
George Cohan (1878-1942)
- Father of the "American" musical theatre
- Always ended with waving american flags and a patriotic song
- Little Johnny Jones: did it all!
- acted, produced, choreographed, directed, wrote music etc.
- Hum-able Tunes
- "Yankee Doodle Dandy"
"Little Johnny Jones"
- horse jockey little Johnny Jones: very successful. races in england, falls in love with goldie gates, she follows him to spy. bad guy Ansy tries to get jj to throw race, but he doesn't. loses race and people think he threw it. has to clear his name, hires detective to find out who spread rumors. goes to find goldie, Ansy kidnapped her, jj saves her and they escape and live happily ever after.
"You'are A grand old flag"
"Yankee Doodle Dandy"
"Give my regards to Broadway"
Father of the American musical theatre
- "American" : George Cohan
- "Theatre" : Jerome Kern
Actors' Equity Association (AEA)
- formed in 1913
- 1919 actor's strike: Ziegfeld reaction, Cohan reaction
- Labor unions that protects actor's equity against early evil producers
- "Showboat" Composer
- "Showboat" success earned him the title:
- Father of the American Musical "Theatre"
- Bring ideas of integration
- Knew the style of Ballad Operas and Operettas very well
- 2 sets
- 11 orchestra
1915: small (299 seats) princess theatre going out of business
small scale in all respects (30)
closest thing to a fully integrated musical at the time
music/musical theatre techniques and innovations:
- AABA song structure
- compositions are complex but memorable
Music is played before show starts, bits and pieces of music you later see in the show
Sung more than once in a song
Melodic theme song related to a character or a location - ex: Darth vader
Person scales down the musicals in Princess Musical
- Composed by Jerome Kern
- Beginning of the "Golden Age of Musicals"
- Libretto and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein
- Ziegfeld produces (in the Ziegfeld Theatre)
- minstrelsy (blackface)
- play inside a play
- Theatre about theatre
they don't know they're in love, but we know
"Only Make Believe"
Quasi-Love Song in "Showboat"
"Ol' Man River"
Show Boat: Leitmotif
AABA song structure
- Show Boat: Trunk Song
- A song originally written for another show, not used in that show, but used later in a different show
Mixing of races through marriage. (Julie and Steve)
- Success in popular music AND classical
- Bring Jazz to Mainstream
- youngest song plugger in Tin Pan Alley
life of the party, always on the piano
success in popular music AND classical: "Rhapsody in Blue",
George Gershwin first big hit.
"Rhapsody in Blue"
Composed by George Gershwin
- Mixture of blue and jazz
- he wasn't the orchestrator. Because of this, he was accused not writing this piece.
"Lady Be Good"
- First hit that composed by George Gershwin and lyriced by Ira Gershwin
- Self expressive lyricist
Nickname "The Jeweler": George wrote the music first, gave it to Ira, and then Ira adds the "gems" to the original and spices it up
Ira construct his dummie lyrics to help him remember the melody lines.
Self expressive lyricist
- lyricist who uses the lyrics to show off their ability. rhyme schemes, witty word play, etc. reminder that there's a mind behind the lyrics
Of Thee I Sing (1931)
- George composed, Ira did lyrics
- Pulitzer prize for drama (1st for a musical)
- political satire(sarcasm) musical
Porgy and Bess
- "an American folk opera" (1935)
- based on DuBose Heyward's novel Porgy
- George composed, Ira did libretto
- Heyward and Ira also did lyrics George traveled to Folly Island to learn from the Gullah people
- all african-american cast
- orchestrations by George (Rhapsody in Blue)
- George refused to do white cast in blackface because he didn't want his play to have that kind of influence
Musical vs. Opera
Musical are opera that made in Hollywood, and Opera is musical that made in Opera production companies
- jewish american- middle class family
- child prodigy, started playing piano at age 4
- attended Columbia University
Lorenz Larry Hart
- jewish american
- went to Columbia (7 years before Rodgers)
- Dark view of love mostly due to his personal demons, he was very short, unattractive, no social life, lived with his mom etc.
- deeply closeted homosexual
- raging alcoholic
The Garrick Gaieties
- theatre guild: a theatrical society founded in New York City in 1918 by Lawrence Langner, Philip Moeller, Helen Westley and Theresa Helburn
"On Your Toes"
* : choreographer
- ballet/integrated dance
"slaughter on 10th avenue"
- introduced the term "choreography" to musical theatre
most famous ballet choreographer, introduced the term choreography
- Joey as "anti-hero"
PLOT (not an happy ending)
- everyone just kind of walks out of it, nobody is a better person and there's no happy, satisfying ending
- cynical, dark worldview: how a very depressed man views the world
- powerful, sexual matron: older woman who is extremely sexualized
- Furthers Musical Theatre's journey towards being considered a "serious" art form
- Protagonist, but lacks the conventional heroic qualities
Found on a sidewalk in Central Park of pneumonia
Rodgers & Hammerstein
- More focus on an integrated score
- Wrote the score after Hammerstein wrote lyrics
- lyrics first , then roger writes the music
- "Show Boat": Libretto and lyrics
- born in NYC
- attended Columbia
- extremely liberal and progressive: musicals cover diverse material but usually have an underlying social message
- not self-expressive
- Positive Worldview. Sentimental view
- Original name: *
Away we go!
- based on the play Green Grow the Lilacs by Lynn Riggs
- produced by the theatre guild
- "no gags, no gals, no chance": not funny, nothing interesting about tit, no scandalous women, not going to work
- best example of an integrated musical ever written
- first full cast album (record entire musical and release). increase the popularity of the shows.
"People Will Say We're In Love"
Quasi-love song: Oklahoma!
- She's a female who had a real role in a show and got paid as much as the men which was unheard of
- Directed Allegro: biggest flop, she was not a great director
- based on Hungarian drama
- more sophisticated than Oklahoma!- more serious subject matter and characters have greater depth and emotion
- Perfect integrated musical piece
* Active song
- two people decide to rob their boss, one guy Billy kills himself instead of spending forever in jail? etc.
- Billy ended in heaven, then rejected, and given a chance to make good
"If I Loved You"
- Quasi-Love Song
- "Bench Scene"
- in "Carousel"
* Based on a collection of short stories Tales of the South Pacific by James Michener
* Socially conscious musical with a clear message
* 1950 Pulitzer Prize (2nd)
* First is "Of Thee I sing (1931)" by George and Ira
Kiss Me Kate (1948)
- Cole Porter needs a hit!
- Musical version of Taming of the Shrew
- considered Cole Porter's masterpiece
- Showbussniess anthem: "another op'nin, another show"
First: Of Thee I sing by George and Ira
Second: South Pacific (Racism)
The King and I (1951)
* Rodgers did not study Asian music
- His "Interpretation" of what the music sounded like.
* Almost 3000 R&H shows produced in American each year
* R&H Organization
* Very powerful, very strict control of R&H properties
Irving Berlin(1888 - 1989)
- Born in Russia
- Self-Taught composer/Lyricist (black keys)
- Like Cohan in a lot of ways (Composer & Lyricist)
- wrote: "Marie from Sunny Italy" (song),
- 1919 opened his own publishing house (according to A.S.C.A.P, he is making bulks!)
- 1921 Music Box Theatre
Musical Revue (Yip! Yip! Yaphank!)
- Started at Camp Upton then ---> Broadway
As Thousands Cheer (1933)
- Irving Berlin (Composer and lyricist)
- Satirical revue: NOT a book musical
- Scenes for news, current events, comics, the personals etc. Used names of famous people
Ethel Waters (1896-1977)
- Result of a rape
- "Sweet Mama Stringbean" (Tall and thin)
- Discovered by Irving Berlin
- Ethel Waters in "As Thousands Cheer": first broadway show to an African American Equal Billing with Caucasians (curtain call)
- from "As Thousands Cheer" :
- sung by Ethel Waters
- Headline: unknown negro hanged by crazy mob, then bombed.
- Berlin refused to cut this song
"God Bless American"
- Composed by Irving Berlin
- Trunk Song (standard alone hits)
- Refused to be national athene because of Irving Berlin's race as jewish american
"This is the Army"
- Broadway musical
- Composed by Irving Berlin
- First Racially Integrated Unit in U.S. Army
"Annie Get Your Gun"
- music and lyrics by Irving Berlin
- "Star Vehicle" for Ethel Merman
- "Star Vehicle" means a show is written for a performer.
- Dorothy Fields originally asked Jerome Kern to write the score, but Jerome Kern died
- Berlin suspicious of "situation musicals" : Berlin has no success with integrated musical; he has only success with Revue.
- wrote several songs for the "hillbilly musical" in one weekend
- Integrated musical? not so much
- Accused of being Old Fashioned
- 1999 revival , as successful as the orignial
- Final Match ends in a Tie!
- A "shouter": big brassy voice, belted, ultimate show-woman
- Broadway debut: Girl Crazy (1930)
- Anything Goes (1934)
- Original Annie in Annie Get Your Gun (1946)
- Gypsy (1959)
- Lyricist in "Annie Get Your Guns"
- first successful female Tin Pan Alley songwriter
- gave strong female voice to lyrics and librettos
- first to win a tony, oscar, and to be inducted into the songwriters hall of fame
- 8 musicals librettos with Cole Porter
Anything Goes (1934)
- Plot is crazy non-sense because of the cruise sunk
- Funny Musical
- Not experimental and didn't push the art form forward
- Star Vehicle: Ethel Merman
- "You're The Top" List song
- Ethel Merman
- Patti LuPone
- Sutton Foster
Cole Porter (1891-1964)
- born in Peru, Indiana
- INSANELY wealthy
- attended Yale and Harvard: wrote Yale fight song
- composer and lyricist
- wanted to be a successful broadway artist and to live the
playboy lifestyle so he did both
- He was oxymoron
- tragic horse riding accident, broke both legs
- also wrote "Let's do it"