31 terms

Chapter 13

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Terms in this set (...)

Treaty of Fort Laramie
an agreement in which the Sioux tribe would move to a reservation in return for the closing off of the Bozeman Trail
Battle of Little Bighorn
Colonel George A. Custer-leader of 7th Cavalry sent 200 men against 2000 Sioux and Cheyenne led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse-within 20 minutes, all Custer's men were killed
Assimilation
an attempt to "Americanize" the Native Americans by making them live like white settlers
Dawes Act
gave 160 acres of land to the head of every Native American household who willingly left their reservation
Battle Of Wounded Knee
7th Cavalry fired cannons at 350 freezing and starving Sioux and within minutes, 300 of them were dead
Sitting Bull
leader of Hunkpapa Sioux, did not sign Treaty of Fort Laramie. The treaty failed when many settlers invaded the Black Hills when gold was discovered in 1874
Exodusters
African-Americans who migrated from the South to Kansas in the post-Reconstruction years.
Homestead Act
a U.S. law enacted in 1862, that provided 160 acres in the West to any citizen or intended citizen who was head of household and would cultivate the land for five years.
Morrill Land Act
laws enacted in 1862 and 1890 to help create agricultural colleges by giving federal land to states.
Joseph Glidden
the inventor of barbed wire in 1874.
Cyrus McCormick
the inventor of reaping machines in 1847.
John Deere
the inventor of the steel plow in 1837.
Homesteader
someone who took advantage of the Homestead Act.
Soddy
freestanding houses made by stacking blocks of prairie turf.
Bonanza farm
enormous single crop spreads of 15,000-50,000 acres.
William Jennings Bryan
former Nebraska congressman, Democratic candidate in election of 1896.
Grange
the Patrons of Husbandry-a social and educational organization through which farmers attempted to combat the power of the railroads in the late 19th Century.
Populist Party
founded out of Populism-the movement of the people, demanded reforms to lift the burden of debt from farmers and other workers and to give the people a greater voice in their government.
"Silverites"
people who favored bimetallism, a monetary system in which the government would give citizens either gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks.
"Gold bugs"
people who favored the gold standard-backing dollars solely with gold.
Oliver Hudson Kelley
founder of Patrons of Husbandry-an organization for farmers.
William McKinley
Ohioan and Republican candidate in election of 1896, won the election of 1896.
Compare and contrast the cultures of Native Americans and white settlers and explain why white settlers moved west.
The Native Americans were nomadic, ride horses, worship buffalo and nature. While the white settlers are Christian, farmers and only used what they wanted from the buffalo. White settlers moved west because of the gold discovery, fertile land, the ability to start a business and the chance to own cheap land.
Describe both the myth and the reality of the American cowboy and explain the end of the open range
The myth is that cowboys are white and are similar to heroes and end up saving the girl. But it's not really like that, cowboys herded the cattle from San Antonio to Kansas. The end of the open range was because of the bad weather, overgrazing and the invention of barbed wire.
Describe how early settlers survived on the plains and transformed them into profitable land.
Settlers survived by the inventions created. By using these inventions, they were able to farm and make money. The settlers also made soddy's as a home. Barbed wire protected crops.
Explain the rise and fall of the Populist Party in the late 19th Century. How did it try to help the farmers on the Great Plains?
The Populist Party wanted to help farmers by having a voice in government. Populists wanted an increase in the money supply, which would produce a rise in prices received for goods and services; a graduated income tax; and a federal loan program. Finally, the Populists called for an eight-hour workday and restrictions on immigration. The Populist Party fell because of the election of 1896. When McKinley won, bimetallism was ineffective.
Do you think that the government's treatment of Native Americans in the mid to late 1800s was justified?
a) Designated boundaries for reservations
I think that reservations were not necessary. Although being the peaceful way to deal with Native Americans, it was not a good way to deal with Native Americans.
b) Use of military force
I do not think military force was necessary. I think that a bad example of this was the Battle of Little Bighorn. Colonel Custer underestimating the Sioux tribe and having his cavalry defeated.
c) Treaties and compensation
I think treaties were more reasonable than other choices to deal with Native Americans. The Dawes Act was good because it gave land to Native Americans when they left reservations. The Treaty of Fort Laramie was reasonable. This treaty closed off the Bozeman Trail in exchange for the Sioux tribe moving to a reservation.
d) Gold rushes
I think removing the Native Americans from their reservations was necessary. The Native Americans were removed from a reservation, being good, and more people moved to the United States, in search of gold. 1874, gold discovered in Black Hills.
e) Policy of assimilation
I think assimilation was not necessary. Although being given land for moving off the reservations, the Native Americans had to live like white settlers. I think that this way was a bad idea, trying to get Native Americans to change their entire culture was not a smart move. There will always be people retaliating in that type of situation.