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Ch. 13- The Respiratory System

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What are the 2 systems responsible for supplying the body with oxygen and disposing of carbon dioxide?
Respiratory System and Cardiovascular System
The respiratory system involves a gas exchange between _________ and ____________.
blood and the external enviroment
The cardiovascular system involves a gas exchange between _________ and ____________.
the lungs and tissue cells
The respiratory system includes:
the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi (and their smaller branches), lungs (containing terminal air sacs called alveoli)
What is the only structure that is NOT a conducting passageway that allow air to reach lungs?
Alveoli
The only externally visible respiratory organ
nose
The nostrils are a.k.a:
the external nares
The interior of the nose
nasal cavity
midline division of nasal cavity
nasal septum
greatly increases the surface area of the mucosa exposed to air
nasal conchae
Separates nasal cavity from oral cavity
palate
where palate is supported by bone
hard palate
unsupported posterior part of palate (no bone)
soft palate
surrounds the nasal cavity
paranasal sinuses
lightens the skull and acts as resonance chambers for speech
paranasal sinuses
inflammation of the nasal mucosa
rhinitis
produces excessive mucus and results in nasal congestion and postnasal drip
rhinitis
inflammation of the sinuses
sinusitis
This occurs when the passageways connecting the sinuses to the nasal cavity are blocked and air in sinus cavities is absorbed (creating a partial vacuum).
sinus headache
muscular passageway that is common for food and air
pharynx
drain the middle ear
auditory tubes
lymphatic tissue found in pharynx
tonsils
Also known as the voice box
larynx
routes air and food into their proper channels, also controls speech
larynx
forms the Adam's Apple
Thyroid Cartilage
protects superior opening of the larynx
Epiglottis
What does the larynx do when we swallow?
Rises and epiglottis tips, forming a lid over the opening of the larynx and thus routing the food into the esophagus.
If food entered the larynx, a _________ _________is triggered.
cough reflex
The adams apple is actually________ __________.
Thyroid Cartilage
The cell sin the alveoli that pick up bacteria and other debris.
dust cells or macrophages
What is used to measure respiratory capacities?
spirometer
What are the different lung capacities?
1) Tidal Volume
2) Inspiratory Reserve Volume
3) Expiratory Reserve Volume
4) Residual Volume
normal breathing in and out
tidal volume
amount of air that can be inhaled past the tidal volume amount
inspiratory reserve volume
amount of air that can be exhaled past the tidal volume amount
expiratory reserve volume
the air that is always in the lungs and cannot be voluntarily expelled
residual volume
separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
the palate
What is the function of the epiglottis?
protects the superior opening of the larynx by helping route food and liquids into the esophagus rather than the larynx
Where is cilia found?
In the trachea
What type of cells make up the walls of alveoli?
Squamous Epithelial Cells
What do squamous epithelial cells produce?
Surfactant
What does surfactant do?
Creates surface tension to keep the alveoli open
Exchange of both oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane occurs by what process?
Diffusion
Internal Respiration is a function of the __________ system.
cardiovascular system
External Respiration is a function of the _________ system.
respiratory system
What are the 3 types of lung cancer?
1) Squamous Cell Carcinoma
2) Adenocarcinoma
3) Small Cell Carcinoma
trouble breathing, fluid buildup in the chest, sweat glands have an extremely salty perspiration
cystic fibrosis
cough up blood
squamous cell carcinoma
trouble exhaling
emphysema
mucosa of the lower respiratory passages is severely inflamed and an excess amount of mucus is produced
chronic bronchitis
releasing air to clear the lower respiratory tract
coughing
spasms of the diaphragm
hiccuping
releasing air to clear the upper respiratory tract
sneezing
inspiration followed by short exhales
crying or laughing
surgical opening int he trachea that provides an alternate route for air into the lungs
tracheostomy
inflammation of the nasal cavity
rhinitis
inflammation of the sinus cavity
sinusitis
What are the 4 events of respiration?
1) Pulmonary Ventilation (respiration)
2) External Respiration (respiration)
3) Respiratory Gas Transport (cardiovascular)
4) Internal Respiration (cardiovascular)
Where in the brain is respiration controlled?
The pons and medulla of the brain
normal breathing rate is controlled by:
the medulla
alters the breathing rate:
pons