the contamination of streams, rivers, lakes, oceans, or groundwater with substances produced through human activities and that negatively affect organisms.
distinct locations such as particular factory that pumps its waste into a nearby stream or a sewage treatment plant that discharges its wastewater from a pipe into the ocean.
more diffuse areas such as an entire farming region, a suburban community with many lawns and septic systems, or storm runoff from parking lots.
water produced by human activities including human sewage from toilets and gray water from bathing and washing clothes and dishes.
organic matter that enters a body of water and feeds the growth of the microbes that are decomposers.
Biochemical oxygen demand - BOD
the amount of oxygen a quantity of water uses over a period of time at a specific temperature. oxygen-demanding water is measured in terms of BOD. high BOD means a body of water is more polluted by wastewater.
the decomposition of wastewater can provide an abundance of fertility to a body of water, known as eutrophication.
when a body of water experiences an increase in fertility due to Anthropogenic inputs of nutrients
organisms that indicate whether or not disease-causing pathogens are likely to be present.
Fecal coliform bacteria
a group of generally harmless microorganisms that live in the intestines of human beings and other animals. ex. Escherichia coli. presence of fecal coliform bacteria indicates possibility of human waste entering the water
in rural areas of low population density, houses often have their own sewage treatment system called septic system. has two components: a septic tank and a leach field.
large container that receives wastewater from the house.
anything heavier than water sinks to form the sludge layer in the septic tank.
the middle layer of fairly clear water, contains large quantities of bacteria and may also contain pathogenic organisms and inorganic nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous.
combination of pipes and lawn makes up the leach field. pipes laid out across a lawn below the surface. harmful pathogens in leach field can settle and become part of sludge, or be outcompeted by other microorganisms, or be degraded by soil microorganisms in the leach field.
Legal Sewage Dumping
during periods of heavy rain, treatment plants are allowed to bypass their normal treatment protocol and pump vast amounts of water directly into an adjacent body of water. contamination can happen during this time
large, human-made bonds lined with rubber to prevent the manure from leaking into the groundwater. many farms have manure lagoons built. manure can be used as fertilizer in the farm after it has been broken down, but there's also possibility of contamination.
heavy metal, contaminates water when the water passes through the pipes of older homes that contain lead-lined pipes, brass fittings contained lead, and lead-containing materials such as solder used to fasten the material together.
compound that occurs naturally in Earth's crust and can dissolve into groundwater. can be removed from water via fine membrane filtration, distillation, and reverse osmosis.
naturally occuring heavy metal found in increased concentrations in water as a result of human activities. result of burning coal and other fossil fuels, incineration of garbage, hazardous waste, medical supplies, dental supplies.
acid rain. pH of bodies of water lowered in bodies of water and trees and fishes died because the presence of smokestacks of industrial plants that were burning coal and releasing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide into the air. returned to Earth KMs away as acid deposition. industries use coal scrubbers to combat problem of acids being released.
Synthetic Organic Compound
(human-made) can enter the water supply either from industrial point sources (where they are manufactured) or from nonpoint sources (when they are applied over very large areas) cause genetic defects
Pesticides & Inert Ingredients
pesticides do not target particular species. DDT = insecticide can move up aquatic food chain. inert ingredients added to commercial pesticides, makes pesticide more effective
Pharmaceuticals & Hormones
50% of all streams contained antibiotics and reproductive hormones, 80% nonprescription drugs, 90% steroids.
perchlorates leach from contaminated soil into the groundwater. affect thyroid gland and reduce reproductive hormones if taken in
dumped into bodies of water.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
one group of industrial compounds, used in manufacturing plastics and insultaing electrical transformers until 79. carcinogenic (cancer-causing), we can partially reverse the contamination of our water bodies.
Polybrominated dephenyl ethers (PBDEs)
most commonly known as flame retardants to make less flammable. can lead to brain damage, especially in children. several states banned manufacture of PBDEs
oil is a persistent substance that can spread below and across the surface of the water for hundreds of KM and leave a thick, viscous covering on shorelines that is extremely difficult to remove. but oil pollution does occur naturally also
Solid Waste Pollution
solid waste = discarded materials from households and industries that do not pose a toxic hazard to humans and other organisms. GARBAGE POLLUTION
sediment pollution is the result of human activities that can substantially increase the amount of sediment entering natural waterways. sediment = particles of sand, silt, clay carried by moving water in streams and rivers
occurs when human activities cause a substantial change in the temperature of water. industries return water after using it to lower temperature. thermal shock kills many species - increase respiration rate, less oxygen in hot water
sounds emitted by ships and submarines can interfere with animal communications. ex. sonar
Clean Water Act
1972 supports the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife recreation in and on the water.
Safe Drinking Act
1974, 86, 96 sets the natl standards for safe drinking water.
maximum contaminant levels (MCL)
maximum contaminant level allowed for drinking water.