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43 terms

Psychology: Chapter 7 Vocab

STUDY
PLAY
Primary Reinforcement
Something necessary for psychological/physical survival that is used as a reward
Discrimination Learning
Learning to tell the difference between one event or object and another; the reverse of generalization
Operant Conditioning
Conditioning that results from one's action and the consequences they cause
Cognitive Learning
A way of learning based on abstract mental processes and previous knowledge
Latent Learning
Learning that isn't obvious
Stimulus
Anything that elicits a response
Extinction
The gradual loss of an association over time
Punishment
The process of weakening a response by following it with unpleasant consequences
Continuous Reinforcement
Each time a behavior occurs, reinforcement is given
Response
A reaction to a stimulus
Reinforcement
Something that follows a response and strengthens the tendency to repeat that response
Social Learning
All learning which occurs in a social situation
Shaping
The process of gradually refining a response by successively reinforcing closer approximations of it
Variable Ratio
Reinforcement occurs after a desired behavior occurs, but a different number of the desired acts is required each time
Reinforcement Value
The desirability of a specific reward to an individual
Unconditioned Stimulus
A stimulus that automatically elicits a response
Schedules of Reinforcement
Different methods of reinforcing
Fixed Ratio
Reinforcement occurs after the desired act is performed a specific number of times
Stimulus Generalization
A response spread from one specific to other stimuli that resembles the original
Secondary Reinforcement
Anything that comes to represent a primary re-enforcer, such as money bringing food
Conditioned Response
A response to a stimulus that is brought about by repeated exposure
Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov's method of conditioning in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus
Positive Reinforcement
Strengthening the tendency to repeat a response by following it with the addition of something pleasant
Generalization
A behavior that spreads from one situation to a similar one
Unconditioned Response
An automatic response to a particular natural stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus
A previously neutral stimulus that has been associated with a natural (or unconditioned) stimulus
Variable Interval
Reinforcement occurs after varying amounts of time if a desired act occurs
Fixed Interval
A reinforcement is received after a fixed amount of time has passed if the desired act occurs
Spontaneous Recovery
A previously extinct response begins to reoccur
Expectancies
A person's beliefs about how well he or she will be able to do something
Conditioning
Making an association between two events by repeated exposure
Chaining
Reinforcing the connection between different parts of a sequence
Learning
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
Pavlov
Psychologist associated with Classical Conditioning who did an experiment with dogs
Mary Cover Jones
Psychologist who helped remove "Little Peter's" fear
Watson
Psychologist associated with Classical Conditioning who did an experiment called "Little Albert"
B.F. Skinner
Psychologist associated with Operant Conditioning who developed a "___ box" for rats and pigeons
Partial Reinforcement Schedules
Various ways to reinforce where reinforcement is not given each time
Bandura
Psychologist associated with Social Learning who felt others missed the individual and that rationalization can occur; THEORY OF MODELING
Observational Learning
Watch and decide what to imitate (es. child and parent)
E.C. Tolman
Psychologist associated with the Cognitive Approach whose theory proved the idea of STRATEGIES
Strategies
Creating techniques for solving problems
Cognitive Maps
Internal representations of an area