AP HUG Exam
Terms in this set (121)
a two-dimensional model of Earth's surface, or a portion of it.
a specific point of Earth distinguished by a particular character.
an area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features.
the name given to a place on Earth.
total number of people / total land area
when a state breaks down due to conflicts between its ethnic groups
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that persons of color will soon move into the neighborhood.
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.
A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent.
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
demographic transition (DT)
high crude birth rate and death rate with low natural growth to the low crude birth and death rates with a larger population
desertification/semiarid land degredation
degradation of land due to human use. includes over farming, deforestation, etc.
a regional variety of a languge
dietary energy consumption
The amount of food that an individual consumes
LDC (less developed country)
A country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development.
MDC (more developed country)
A country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development.
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
the amount of time needed to double the population
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
immigration from a location
the causes of death in each level of the demographic transition
a theory in which all of the answers for human geographers lies within the laws of physical science
deals with incidence and control of epidemics
a powerful ethnic group forces out a smaller one in order to create an ethnic homogeneous region
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
a region centered around one focal point
A process of converting an urban neighbor-hood from a predominantly low- income, renter- occupied area to a predominantly middle- class, owner- occupied area.
GIS (geographic information science)
A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.
GPS (global position system)
A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
a boundary that separates regions in which each region has a dominant langauge
a state without a direct outlet to the ocean or a body of water
a form of manufacturing developed in Japan when parts arrive right when they're needed
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago.
a collection of languages within a branch that share a common grammar or spelling pattern
the number of years an individual is expected to live
a language mutually understood in the business word
percentage of people who can read and write
a language that is written as well as spoken
a factory built in Mexico near the border by the US to take advantage of low labor costs
an area surrounding a central place in which people are attracted to its goods and services
multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca
culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares traits, despite personal differences
Adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks.
PCSA (Primary Census Statistic Area)
combined statistic area + metropolitan + micropolitian
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface (agriculture, fishing, mining)
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second- ranking settlement.
Primate City Rule
The first largest settlement has twice the population of the second largest city
the process of transferring Earth's surface to a flat map
Purchasing power parity (PPP)
The amount of money needed in one country to purchase the same goods and services in another country
Rank size rule
the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries. (connect to racism and gentrification)
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from other long- distance methods.
planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
a flooded area used to grow rice
the relationship between a portion of Earth's surface that's being studied and the Earth as a whole
the sector of the economy concerned with manufacturing and the transformation of raw materials
the idea that ethnic groups have the right to govern themselves
legislation and mandates that limit suburban sprawl; preserves farmland
Social area analysis
an analysis that determines where people of similar background and tradition live in an urban area
the reduction in time it takes to transport or diffuse something due to improvements in transportation and communication
The spread of an underlying principle even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
the contribution of a place's physical features to how food tastes
the portion of the economy concerned with transportation of goods in exchange for monetary value
the number of people needed to support a service
the name given to a place on Earth's surface
a state in which the most power lies with the government
a religion that attempts to appeal to all peoples in order to gain followers
# of people needed to make an urban area
the gross value of a product minus the costs that went into it
vernacular region / perceptual region
a place that people believe exists because of their cultural identity ("the Midwest")
Zero population growth (ZPG)
a decline in the total fertility rate to the point that the natural increase hits zero
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.
Pros/Cons of a Mercator projection
shape is distorted very little, direction is consistent, and the map is rectangular. relative size is distorted towards the poles, making high-latitude places look much larger than they actually are.
pros/cons of a Robinson projection
useful for displaying info across oceans. however, land masses are much smaller than they actually are.
the body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that create a tradition.
an area within which everyone shares a common one of more distinctive characteristic. (states that share the same laws)
an area organized around a node or focal point. The characteristic chosen to define a functional region dominates at a central focus or node and diminishes in importance outward.
physical character (climate, elevation, etc)
The location of a place relative to other places.
force or process that makes things worldwide in scope. in effect, the scope of the world is shrinking.
the fast increase in value followed by a sharp decline
conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries
a branch of human geography that emphasizes the importance of understanding the psychological basis for individual human actions
a branch of human geography that emphasizes the different ways that individuals perceive their surrounding environment.
a place where an innovation originates
Crude birth rate (CBR)
the total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in that society.
the spread of a feature from one place to another in an additive process. includes hierarchical, contagious and stimulus
the spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to others
the rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population.
the extent of a feature spread over space. If features are clustered, they are close together. If they are far apart, they're dispersed.
the total number of people divided by total land area
Ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land.
Crude death rate (CDR)
total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in that society.
Natural increase rate (NIR)
percentage by which a population grows in a year.
Total fertility rate (TFR)
The number of children a woman will have in her fertile years.
a country's distinctive population structure displayed on a bar graph. The youngest goes at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The length of the bar represents the percentage of the total population contained within that group.
stage one of the DTM
little growth. high birth and high death. early humanity
stage two of the DTM
high growth. high birth and low death. occurs during an industrial or scientific revolution.
stage three of the DTM
decreasing growth. growth is smaller than stage two. CDR IS STILL SMALLER THAN CBR!
stage four of the DTM
low growth. CBR and CDR are equal, and ZPG is hit. due to women in the workforce or access to birth control.
possible stage five of the DTM
After a country has passed through the other stages, they hit a very low CBR, a high CDR, resulting in a negative NIR, meaning no growth occurs.
stage one of the ETM
pestilence and famine. Highly infectious diseases were common, as well as accidents, which contribute to a high CDR.
used by Malthus. describes the presence of highly infectious diseases and accidents in stage one of the EMT.
stage two of the ETM
receding pandemics. increased sanitation and health care causes a diminishing of pandemics and causes a rapid decline in the CDR
disease that covers a large portion of land and effects a high population of people living in that area.
stage three of the ETM
degenerate diseases. Habits such as a sedentary lifestyle and poor eating habits contribute to deaths, causing a low but increasing CDR.
stage four of the ETM
delayed degenerate diseases. Chronic disorders are connected with aging, such as heart issues and cancer. This contributes to a moderately declining CDR.
possible stage five of the ETM
evolution. infectious diseases have evolved and now return.
IMR (infant mortality rate)
Expressed in the number of deaths per 1000 infants. demonstrates how developed a country's healthcare system is.
when populations begin to grow, they will outweigh the amount of food we are able to produce to feed said population. Eventually, famine would be inevitable.
the three largest language famillies
Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan, Niger-Congo
Nomadic Warrior Hypothesis
Proposes that the first speakers were the Kurgan people, who lived near present-day Russia and Kazakhstan. These people were nomadic herders, who went through western Europe and later on conquered much of Europe and South Asia.
Sedentary Farmer Hypothesis
Proposes that people living in Eastern Anatolia 2,000 years before the Kurgans were the first. They diffused through the Greek branch, and moved towards Italy and the Mediterranean area, continuing into Northern France and onto the British Isles.
when a country falls into stage 2 of the DTM, it's possible to determine how much the country may grow and how much the population changes over time
what economy is associated with stage three of the DTM?
what economy is associated with stage two DTM?