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anatomy and physiology
what bones contribute to the formation of the orbit ?
Frontal bone, maxilla, lacrimal, ethnoid, sphenoid, palatine, zygomatic.
why can the sphenoid be called the keystone of the cranial floor?
it is in contact with all of the other cranial bones.
vertebral type containing foramina in the transverse processes,through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain
dens here provides a pivot for rotation of the first cervical vertebra
transverse processes faceted for articulation with ribs;spinous process pointing sharply downward
tail bone; vestigial fused vertebrae
supports the head;allows a rocking motion in conjuction with the occipital bones
composite bone;articulates with the hip bone laterally
cavity enclosing the nerve cord
weight-bearing portion of the vertebra
openings providing for exit of spinal nerves
structures that form an enclosure for the spinal cord
body and vertebral arch
How does a spinal nerve exit the vertebral column?
It exits from the vertebral column through openings ,invertebral foramina , between adjacent vertebrae.
what are two factors that permit flexibility of the vertebral column
atlas and axis
what kind of tissue composes the intervertebral discs?
a painful rupture of the fibrocartilage of the disc between spinal vertebrae
provides levers against which muscles pull
spinous process and transverse process
the major bony components of the thorax (excluding the vertebral column) are the ___ and ____
ribs and sternum
top 7 pairs of ribs that attach directly to the sternum by costal cartilage
last 5 pairs of ribs; attach indirectly to sternum