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anatomy terms

what bones contribute to the formation of the orbit ?

Frontal bone, maxilla, lacrimal, ethnoid, sphenoid, palatine, zygomatic.

why can the sphenoid be called the keystone of the cranial floor?

it is in contact with all of the other cranial bones.

vertebral type containing foramina in the transverse processes,through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain

cervical vertebra--typical

dens here provides a pivot for rotation of the first cervical vertebra


transverse processes faceted for articulation with ribs;spinous process pointing sharply downward

thoracic vertebra

tail bone; vestigial fused vertebrae


supports the head;allows a rocking motion in conjuction with the occipital bones


massive vertebrae;weight-sustaining

lumbar vertebra

composite bone;articulates with the hip bone laterally


cavity enclosing the nerve cord

Vertebral Foramen

weight-bearing portion of the vertebra

The Body

openings providing for exit of spinal nerves

intervertebral foramina

structures that form an enclosure for the spinal cord

body and vertebral arch

How does a spinal nerve exit the vertebral column?

It exits from the vertebral column through openings ,invertebral foramina , between adjacent vertebrae.

what are two factors that permit flexibility of the vertebral column

atlas and axis

what kind of tissue composes the intervertebral discs?


herniated disc

a painful rupture of the fibrocartilage of the disc between spinal vertebrae

provides levers against which muscles pull

spinous process and transverse process

the major bony components of the thorax (excluding the vertebral column) are the ___ and ____

ribs and sternum

true ribs

top 7 pairs of ribs that attach directly to the sternum by costal cartilage

false ribs

last 5 pairs of ribs; attach indirectly to sternum

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