Terms in this set (44)
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Nations controlled by the Soviet Union/served as the Buffer Zone; Included: Poland, Czech., Hungary, Romania, and East Germany
Term used by Khrushchev in 1963 to describe a situation in which the United States and Soviet Union would continue to compete economically and politically without launching a thermonuclear war.
the truman doctrine
Policy that stated the the US must help and support free people through economic and financial aid. They pushed for economic and political stability. This doctrine led to the Marshal Plan.
An economic plan to get Europe back on its feet after WWII. it gave 12 million dollars to the Western European countries. This was supposed to reduce the risk of communism spreading in Europe.
general douglas macarthur
He was one of the most-known American military leaders of WW2(He liberated the Phillipines and made the Japanese surrender at Tokyo in 1945, also he drove back North Korean invaders during the Korean War)
Sen. Joseph McCarthy
Born in 1908, Joseph McCarthy was a United States Senator from Wisconsin. McCarthy was broadcast over radio and television claiming there were large numbers of communist supporters in America, and is widely accepted as the cause of national hysteria over Communism. This philosophy, called McCarthyism, caused panic throughout the nation, leading to many trials for espionage, and later, executions, such as the Rosenberg couple. Mccarthyism refers to reckless accusations & communist activities
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Communists who received international attention when they were executed having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American atomic bomb to the Soviet Union
u-2 spy plane
U.S. spy plane shot down over the USSR which ended a move toward "rapprochement" at the end of the Eisenhower administration.
cuban missile crisis
(JFK) , , an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba
Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and has been president of the government and First Secretary of the Communist Party since 1976.
bay of pigs invasion
(1961) the failed attempt of Cuban exiles backed by the U.S. to overthrow the Cuban socialist government of Fidel Castro
1950-1953 Conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with North Korea.
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
A country bordering South Vietnam to the west, and was a stronghold for Viet Cong troops to build up and then penetrate S. Vietnam borders with ease. Consequently, Nixon proceeded to enact a military procedure to eradicate Communist troop bases and villages in this country. While he believed that this plan would allow him to end the war quickly and decisively, it only succeeded in igniting a civil war in this country and a new procession of protests in America.
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.
hungarian revolt (1956)
Students and workers in Budapest began rioting for the return of the reformist premier Nagy. At first Khrushchev seemed willing to compromise, then he crushed the revolution. The west ignored it because the Suez Crisis was going on
czech crisis (1968)
On August 20, 1968, the Soviet Union led Warsaw Pact troops in an invasion of Czechoslovakia to crack down on reformist trends in Prague. Although the Soviet Union's action successfully halted the pace of reform in Czechoslovakia, it had unintended consequences for the unity of the communist bloc.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
the space age
1960's decade of change seen as progress, driven by space race
Many scientists and military leaders believed that control of space would be very important. Consequently, the USA and USSR invested billions of dollars in developing satellites, space stations, rockets, etc. This investment led to great scientific advances, but also caused friction and insecurities.
An international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the United Nations Charter by 50 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919.
UN declaration of human rights
everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including . . . medical care and necessary social services
Succeeded Stalin as the head of the Soviet Communist Party and became the Soviet premier.
Seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. Ordered forces in to Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia.
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. (p. 863)
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
Explain two causes of the Cold War.
-Stalin didn't keep the agreements he had made with the Western Allies about holding free elections after the war in countries occupied by the Soviet Army.
-This scared the West, who believed that Stalin would try to take over the world by force - Communist ideology clearly stated Communism would inevitably take over the entire world eventually, by force if necessary
-The Americans didn't tell Stalin about the Manhattan Project, the building of the A- bomb. After using A-bombs successfully against Japan, USA refused to share the technology with USSR.
-This scared the Russians, who thought USA may start a new war, against them, using A-bombs.
Some historians argue that the Cold War began in 1918 when the World War I Allies, including the United States, sent forces to Russia to topple the Bolsheviks. How might they support this position?
Some historians might say the cold war started in 1918 because this is when the threats between the US and Soviet union began.
When and why was the United Nations established?
1945; to be an effective peacekeeping organization
What was the Truman Doctrine?
pledge to provide economic and military aid to countries threatened by communism
Based on what you have learned, why did Russia want to close off Berlin?
Russia wanted to close off Berlin to keep the US influence out. They wanted the power
What were two effects of the end of the Cold War?
both sides built up huge arsenals of nuclear weapons, and America became the superpower of the world
Vietnam and Korean wars; America divided; large military spending; huge creation of weaponry; other nations used nuclear weapons; communist scare in america
What goals has the United States tried to achieve as a global superpower?
strong military, strong economy
What were the effects of each of the following Soviet policies: a) command economy and b) rivalry with
the United States?
a) A command economy had the government take control, controlling the prices and wages, giving the government more control b) the rivalry with the US kept them on their toes, not wanting to start a nuclear war
How did Gorbachev's reforms contribute to the collapse of the Soviet Union?
Gorbachev opened up the Berlin wall and let people come and go, creating a policy of openness. He also had a legislature and people could vote, opening up a democracy and defeating the USSR
Describe two problems that have afflicted Russia and the other new republics since the breakup of the Soviet Union.
They had to reorganize the government they'd had before they were absorbed into the USSR or create completely new governments.There was also the issue of a poor economy.
What do you think might happen in Russia if the Communist party won control of the government again?
If the communist party won control over the government, I think that it would be overthrown very easily because of the systems we are used to now.
Do you think the western democracies should invest large sums of money in Russia and other former Soviet republics? Why or why not?
No, because it could get us stuck in an even larger debt.
Why were some Eastern Europeans unhappy with the changes that came after the fall of communism?
everything that they knew had been taken from them
How did Hungarians resist Soviet domination? How did democracy emerge in Poland?
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 (Hungarian: 1956-os forradalom) was a spontaneous nationwide revolt against the government of the People's Republic of Hungary and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956. Soviet Union crushed the revolt. However the Hungarian Communist Party eased its own rule later on in order not to risk more trouble and Hungary therefore became the weak link in the communist chain when things started to go to pieces for the Eastern Bloc at the end of the 1980s.