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Combining Form, Suffix, Prefix & Meaning

Terms in this set (8)

a-, an- no; not; without
ab- away from
abdomin/o abdomen
-ac pertaining to
acanth/o spiny; thorny
acetabul/o acetabulum (hip socket)
acous/o hearing
acr/o extremities; top; extreme point
acromi/o acromion (extension of shoulder bone)
actin/o light
acu/o sharp; severe; sudden
-acusis hearing
ad- toward
aden/o gland
adenoid/o adenoids
adip/o fat
adren/o adrenal gland
adrenal/o adrenal gland
aer/o air
af- toward
agglutin/o clumping; sticking together
-agon to assemble, gather
agora- marketplace
-agra excessive pain
-al pertaining to
alb/o white
albin/o white
albumin/o albumin (protein)
alges/o sensitivity to pain
-algesia sensitivity to pain
-algia pain
all/o other
alveol/o alveolus; air sac; small sac
ambly/o dim; dull
-amine nitrogen compound
amni/o amnion (sac surrounding the embryo)
amyl/o starch
an/o anus
-an pertaining to
ana- up; apart; backward; again, anew
andr/o male
aneurysm/o aneurysm (widened blood vessel)
angi/o vessel (blood)
anis/o unequal
ankyl/o stiff
ante- before; forward
anter/o front
anthrac/o coal
anthr/o antrum of the stomach
anti- against
anxi/o uneasy; anxious
aort/o aorta (largest artery)
-apheresis removal
aphth/o ulcer
apo- off, away
aponeur/o aponeurosis (type of tendon)
append/o appendix
appendic/o appendix
aque/o water
-ar pertaining to
-arche beginning
arter/o artery
arteri/o artery
arteriol/o arteriole (small artery)
arthr/o joint
-arthria articulate (speak distinctly)
articul/o joint
-ary pertaining to
asbest/o asbestos
-ase enzyme
-asthenia lack of strength
atel/o incomplete
ather/o plaque (fatty substance)
-ation process; condition
atri/o atrium (upper heart chamber)
audi/o hearing
audit/o hearing
aur/o ear
auricul/o ear
auto- self, own
axill/o armpit
azot/o urea; nitrogen
bacill/o bacilli (bacteria)
bacteri/o bacteria
balan/o glans penis
bar/o pressure; weight
bartholin/o Bartholin glands
bas/o base; opposite of acid
bi- two
bi/o life
bil/i bile; gall
bilirubin/o bilirubin
-blast embryonic; immature
-blastoma immature tumor (cells)
blephar/o eyelid
bol/o cast; throw
brachi/o arm
brachy- short
brady- slow
bronch/o bronchial tube
bronchi/o bronchial tube
bronchiol/o bronchiole
bucc/o cheek
bunion/o bunion
burs/o bursa (sac of fluid near joints)
byssin/o cotton dust
cac/o bad
calc/o calcium
calcane/o calcaneus (heel bone)
calci/o calcium
cali/o calyx
calic/o calyx
capillar/o capillary (tiniest blood vessel)
capn/o carbon dioxide
-capnia carbon dioxide
carcin/o cancerous; cancer
cardi/o heart
carp/o wrist bones (carpals)
cata- down
caud/o tail; lower part of body
caus/o burn; burning
cauter/o heat; burn
cec/o cecum (first part of the colon)
-cele hernia
celi/o belly; abdomen
-centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid
cephal/o head
cerebell/o cerebellum (posterior part of the brain)
cerebr/o cerebrum (largest part of the brain)
cerumin/o cerumen
cervic/o neck; cervix (neck of uterus)
-chalasia relaxation
-chalasis relaxation
cheil/o lip
chem/o drug; chemical
-chezia defecation; elimination of wastes
chir/o hand
chlor/o green
chlorhydr/o hydrochloric acid
chol/e bile; gall
cholangi/o bile vessel
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o common bile duct
cholesterol/o cholesterol
chondr/o cartilage
chore/o dance
chori/o chorion (outermost membrane of the fetus)
chorion/o chorion
choroid/o choroid layer of eye
chrom/o color
chron/o time
chym/o to pour
cib/o meal
-cide killing
-cidal pertaining to killing
cine/o movement
cirrh/o orange-yellow
cis/o to cut
-clasis to break
-clast to break
claustr/o enclosed space
clavicul/o clavicle (collar bone)
-clysis irrigation; washing
coagul/o coagulation (clotting)
-coccus (-cocci, pl.) berry-shaped bacterium
coccyg/o coccyx (tailbone)
cochle/o cochlea (inner part of ear)
col/o colon (large intestine)
coll/a glue
colon/o colon (large intestine)
colp/o vagina
comat/o deep sleep
comi/o to care for
con- together, with
coni/o dust
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva (lines the eyelids)
-constriction narrowing
contra- against; opposite
cor/o pupil
core/o pupil
corne/o cornea
coron/o heart
corpor/o body
cortic/o cortex, outer region
cost/o rib
crani/o skull
cras/o mixture; temperament
crin/o secrete
-crine secrete; separate
-crit to separate
cry/o cold
crypt/o hidden
culd/o cul-de-sac
-cusis hearing
cutane/o skin
cyan/o blue
cycl/o ciliary body of eye; cycle; circle
-cyesis pregnancy
cyst/o urinary bladder; cyst; sac of fluid
cyt/o cell
-cyte cell
-cytosis condition of cells; slight increase in numbers
dacry/o tear
dacryoaden/o tear gland
dacryocyst/o tear sac; lacrimal sac
dactyl/o fingers; toes
de- lack of; down; less; removal of
dem/o people
dent/i tooth
derm/o skin
-derma skin
dermat/o skin
desicc/o drying
-desis to bind, tie together
dia- complete; through
diaphor/o sweat
-dilation widening; stretching; expanding
dipl/o double
dips/o thirst
dist/o far; distant
dors/o back (of body)
dorsi- back
-dote to give
-drome to run
duct/o to lead, carry
duoden/o duodenum
dur/o dura mater
-dynia pain
dys- bad; painful; difficult; abnormal
-eal pertaining to
ec- out; outside
echo- reflected sound
-ectasia stretching; dialation; expansion
-ectasis stretching; dialation; expansion
ecto- out; outside
-ectomy removal; excision; resection
-edema swelling
-elasma flat plate
electr/o electricity
em- in
-ema condition
-emesis vomiting
-emia blood condition
-emic pertaining to blood condition
emmetr/o in due measure
en- in; within
encephal/o brain
endo- in; within
enter/o intestines (usually small intestine)
eosin/o red; rosy; dawn-colored
epi- above; upon;/ on
epididym/o epididymis
epiglott/o epiglottis
episi/o vulva (external female genitalia)
epitheli/o skin; epithelium
equin/o horse
-er one who
erg/o work
erythem/o flushed; redness
erythr/o red
-esis condition
eso- inward
esphag/o esophagus
esthes/o nervous sensation (feeling)
esthesi/o nervous sensation
-esthesia nervous sensation
estr/o female
ethm/o sieve
eti/o cause
eu- good; normal
-eurysm widening
ex- out; away from
exanthemat/o rash
exo- out; away from
extra- outside
faci- face
fasci/o fascia (membrane supporting muscles)
femor/o femur (thigh bone)
-ferent to carry
fibr/o fiber
fibros/o fibrous connective tissue
fibul/o fibula
-fication process of making
-fida split
flex/o to bend
fluor/o luminous
follicul/o follicle; small sac
-form resembling; in the shape of
fung/i fungus; mushroom
furc/o forking; branching
-fusion to pour; to come together
galact/o milk
ganglion/o ganglion; collection of nerve cell bodies
gastr/o stomach
-gen producing; forming
-genesis producing; forming
-genic produced by or in
ger/o old age
gest/o pregnancy
gester/o pregnancy
gingiv/o gum
glauc/o gray
gli/o glue; neuroglial tissue (supportive tissue of nervous system)
-globin protein
-globulin protein
glomerul/o glomerulus
gloss/o tongue
gluc/o glucose; sugar
glyc/o glucose; sugar
glycogen/o glycogen; animal starch
glycos/o glucose; sugar
gnos/o knowledge
gon/o seed
gonad/o sex glands
goni/o angle
-grade to go
-gram record
granul/o granule (s)
-graph instrument for recording
-graphy process of recording
gravid/o pregnancy
-gravida pregnant woman
gynec/o woman; female
hallucin/o hallucination
hem/o blood
hemat/o blood
hemi- half
hemoglobin/o hemoglobin
hepat/o liver
herni/o hernia
-hexia habit
hidr/o sweat
hist/o tissue
histi/o tissue
home/o sameness; unchanging; constant
hormon/o hormone
humer/o humerus (upper arm bone)
hydr/o water
hyper- above; excessive
hypn/o sleep
hypo- sleep
hypophys/o pituitary gland
hyster/o uterus; womb
-ia condition
-iac pertaining to
-iasis abnormal condition
iatr/o physician; treatment
-ic pertaining to
-ical pertaining to
ichthy/o dry; scaly
-icle small
idi/o unknown; individual; district
ile/o ileum
ili/o ilium
immun/o immune; protection; safe
in- in; into; not
-in, -ine a substance
-ine pertaining to
infra- below; inferior to; beneath
inguin/o groin
insulin/o insulin (pancreatic hormone)
inter- between
intra- within; into
iod/o iodine
ion/o ion; to wander
-ion process
-ior pertaining to
ipsi- same
ir- in
ir/o iris (colored portion of eye)
irid/o iris (colored portion of eye)
is/o same; equal
isch/o to hold back; back
ischi/o ischium (part of hip bone)
-ism process; condition
-ist specialist
-itis inflammation
-ium structure; tissue
jaund/o yellow
jejun/o jejunum
kal/i potassium
kary/o nucleus
kerat/o horny, hard; cornea
kern- nucleus (collection of nerve cells in the brain)
ket/o ketones; acetones
kenton/o ketones; acetones
kines/o movement
kinesi/o movement
-kinesia movement
-kinesis movement
klept/o to steal
kyph/o humpback
labi/o lip
lacrim/o tear; tear duct; lacrimal duct
lact/o milk
lamin/o lamina (part of vertebral arch)
lapar/o abdominal wall; abdomen
-lapse to slide, fall, sag
laryng/o larynx (voice box)
later/o side
leiomy/o smooth (visceral) muscle
-lemma sheath, covering
-lepsy seizure
lept/o thin, slender
-leptic to seize, take hold of
leth/o death
leuk/o white
lex/o word; phrase
-lexia word; phrase
ligament/o ligament
lingu/o tongue
lip/o fat; lipid
-listhesis slipping
lith/o stone; calculus
-lithiasis condition of stones
-lithotomy incision (for removal) of a stone
lob/o lobe
log/o study of
-logy study of
lord/o curve; swayback
-lucent to shine
lumb/o lower back; loin
lute/o yellow
lux/o to slide
lymph/o lymph
lymphaden/o lymph gland (node)
lymphangi/o lymph vessel
-lysis breakdown; separation; destruction; loosening
-lytic to reduce, destroy; separate; breakdown
macro- large
mal- bad
-malacia softening
malleol/o malleolus
mamm/o breast
mandibul/o mandible (lower jaw bone)
-mania obsessive preoccupation
mast/o breast
mastoid/o mastoid process (behind the ear)
maxill/o maxilla (upper jaw bone)
meat/o meatus (opening)
medi/o middle
mediastin/o mediastinum
medull/o medulla (inner section); middle; soft, marrow
mega- large
-megaly enlargement
melan/o black
men/o menses; menstruation
mening/o meninges (membranes covering the spinal cord and brain)
meningi/o meninges
ment/o mind; chin
meso- middle
meta- change; beyond
metacarp/o metacarpals (hand bones)
metatars/o metatarsals (foot bones)
-meter measure
metr/o uterus (womb); measure
metri/o uterus (womb)
mi/o smaller; less
micro- small
-mimetic mimic; copy
-mission to send
mon/o one; single
morph/o shape; form
mort/o death
-mortem death
-motor movement
muc/o mucus
mucos/o mucous membrane (mucosa)
multi- many
mut/a genetic change
mutagen/o causing genetic change
my/o muscle
myc/o fungus
mydr/o wide
myel/o spinal cord; bone marrow
myocardi/o myocardium (heart muscle)
myom/o muscle tumor
myos/o muscle
myring/o tympanic membrane (eardrum)
myx/o mucus
narc/o numbness; stupor; sleep
nas/o nose
nat/i birth
natr/o sodium
necr/o death
nect/o to bind, tie, connect
neo- new
nephr/o kidney
neur/o nerve
neutr/o neither; neutral; neutrophil
nid/o nest
noct/i night
norm/o rule; order
nos/o disease
nucle/o nucleus
nulli- none
nyct/o night
obstetr/o midwife
ocul/o eye
odont/o tooth
odyn/o pain
-oid resembling
-ole little; small
olecran/o olecranon (elbow)
olig/o scanty
om/o shoulder
-oma tumor; mass; fluid collection
omphal/o umbilicus (naval)
onc/o tumor
-one hormone
onych/o nail (of fingers or toes)
o/o egg
oophor/o ovary
-opaque obscure
ophthalm/o eye
-opia vision
-opsia vision
-opsy view of
opt/o eye; vision
optic/o eye; vision
-or one who
or/o mouth
orch/o testis
orchi/o testis
orchid/o testis
-orexia appetite
orth/o straight
-ose full of; pertaining to; sugar
-osis condition, usually abnormal
-osmia smell
ossicul/o ossicle (small bone)
oste/o bone
-ostosis condition of bone
ot/o ear
-otia ear condition
-ous pertaining to
ov/o egg
ovari/o ovary
ovul/o egg
ox/o oxygen
-oxia oxygen
oxy- swift; sharp; acid
oxysm/o sudden
pachy- heavy; thick
palat/o palate (roof of the mouth)
palpebr/o eyelid
pan- all
pancreat/o pancreas
papill/o nipple-like; optic disc (disk)
par- other than; abnormal
para- near; beside; abnormal; apart from; along the side of
-para to bear, bring forth (live births)
-parous to bear, bring forth
parathyroid/o parathyroid glands
-paresis slight paralysis
-pareunia sexual intercourse
-partum birth; labor
patell/a patella
patell/o patella
path/o disease
-pathy disease; emotion
pector/o chest
ped/o child; foot
pelv/i pelvic bone; hip
pend/o to hang
-penia deficiency
-pepsia digestion
per- through
peri- surrounding
perine/o perineum
peritone/o peritoneum
perone/o fibula
-pexy fixation; to put in place
phac/o lens of eye
phag/o eat; swallow
-phage eat; swallow
-phagia eating; swallowing
phak/o lens of eye
phalang/o phalanges (fingers and toes)
phall/o penis
pharmac/o drug
pharmaceut/o drug
pharyng/o throat (pharynx)
phas/o speech
-phasia speech
phe/o dusky; dark
-pheresis removal
phil/o like; love; attraction
-phil attraction for
-philia attraction for
phim/o muzzle
phleb/o vein
phob/o fear
-phobia fear
phon/o voice; sound
-phonia voice; sound
-phor/o to bear
-phoresis carrying; transmission
-phoria to bear, carry; feeling (mental state)
phot/o light
phren/o diaphragm; mind
-phthisis wasting away
-phylaxis protection
physi/o nature; function
-physis to grow
phyt/o plant
-phyte plant
pil/o hair
pineal/o pineal gland
pituitar/o pituitary gland
-plakia plaque
plant/o sole of the foot
plas/o development; formation
-plasia development; formation; growth
-plasm formation
-plastic pertaining to formation
-plasty surgical repair
ple/o more; many
-plegia paralysis; palsy
-plegic paralysis; palsy
pleur/o pleura
plex/o plexus; network (of nerves)
-pnea breathing
pneum/o lung; air; gas
pneumon/o lung; air; gas
pod/o foot
-poiesis formation
-poietin substance that forms
poikil/o varied; irregular
pol/o extreme
polio- gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)
poly- many; much
polyp/o polyp; small growth
pont/o pons (a part of the brain)
-porosis condition of pores (spaces)
post- after; behind
poster/o back (of body); behind
-prandial meal
-praxia action
pre- before; in front of
presby/o old age
primi- first
pro- before; forward
proct/o anus and rectum
pros- before; forward
prostat/o prostate gland
prot/o first
prote/o protein
proxim/o near
prurit/o itching
pseudo- false
psych/o mind
-ptosis droop; sag; prolapse; fall
-ptysis spitting
pub/o pubis (anterior part of hip bone)
pulmon/o lung
pupill/o pupil (dark center of the eye)
purul/o pus
py/o pus
pyel/o renal pelvis
pylor/o pylorus; pyloric sphincter
pyr/o fever; fire
pyret/o fever
pyrex/o fever
quadri- four
rachi/o spinal column; vertebrae
radi/o x-rays; radioactivity; radius (lateral lower arm bone)
radicul/o nerve root
re- back; again; backward
rect/o rectum
ren/o kidney
reticul/o network
retin/o retina
retro- behind; back; backward
rhabdomy/o straited (skeletal) muscle
rheumat/o watery flow
rhin/o nose
rhytid/o wrinkle
roentgen/o x-rays
-rrhage bursting forth (of blood)
-rrhagia bursting forth (of blood)
--rrhaphy suture
-rrhea flow; discharge
-rrhexis rupture
rrhythm/o rhythm
sacr/o sacrum
salping/o fallopian tube; auditory (eustachian) tube
-salpinx fallopian tube; oviduct
sarc/o flesh (connective tissue)
scapul/o scapula; shoulder blade
-schisis to split
schiz/o split
scint/o spark
scirrh/o hard
scler/o sclera (white of eye); hard
-sclerosis hardening
scoli/o crooked; bent
-scope instrument for visual examination
-scopy visual examination
scot/o darkness
seb/o sebum
sebace/o sebum
sect/o to cut
semi- half
semin/i semen; seed
seps/o infection
sial/o saliva
sialaden/o salivary gland
sider/o iron
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
silic/o glass
sinus/o sinus
-sis state of; condition
-sol solution
somat/o body
-some body
somn/o sleep
-somnia sleep
son/o sound
-spadia to tear; cut
-spasm sudden contraction of muscles
sperm/o spermatozoa; sperm cells
spermat/o spermatozoa; sperm cells
sphen/o wedge; sphenoid bone
spher/o globe-shaped; round
sphygm/o pulse
-sphyxia pulse
splanchn/o viscera (internal organs)
spin/o spine (backbone)
spir/o to breathe
splen/o spleen
spondyl/o vertebra (backbone)
squam/o scale
-stalsis contraction
staped/o stapes (middle ear bone)
staphyl/o clusters; uvula
-stasis to stop; control; place
-static pertaining to stopping; controlling
steat/o fat, sebum
-stenosis tightening; stricture
ster/o solid structure; steroid
stere/o solid; three-dimensional
stern/o sternum (breastbone)
steth/o chest
-sthenia strength
-stitial to set; pertaining to standing or positioned
stomat/o mouth
-stomia condition of the mouth
-stomy new opening (to form a mouth)
strept/o twisted chains
styl/o pole or stake
sub- under; below
submaxill/o mandible (lower jaw bone)
-suppression to stop
supra- above, upper
sym- together; with
syn- together; with
syncop/o to cut off, cut short; faint
syndesm/o ligament
synov/o synovia; synovial membrane; sheath around a tendon
syring/o tube
tachy- fast
tars/o tarsus; hindfoot or ankle (7 bones between the foot and the leg)
tax/o order; coordination
tel/o complete
tele/o distant
ten/o tendon
tendin/o tendon
-tension pressure
terat/o monster; malformed fetus
test/o testis (testicle)
tetra- four
thalam/o thalamus
thalass/o sea
the/o put; place
thec/o sheath
thel/o nipple
therapeut/o treatment
-therapy treatment
therm/o heat
thorac/o chest
-thorax chest; pleural cavity
thromb/o clot
thym/o thymus gland
-thymia mind (condition of)
-thymic pertaining to mind
thyr/o thyroid gland; shield
thyroid/o thyroid gland
tibi/o tibia (shin bone)
-tic pertaining to
toc/o labor; birth
-tocia labor; birth (condition of)
-tocin labor; birth (a substance for)
tom/o to cut
-tome instrument to cut
-tomy process of cutting
ton/o tension
tone/o to stretch
tonsill/o tonsil
top/o place; position; location
tox/o poison
toxic/o poison
trache/o trachea (windpipe)
trans- across; through
-tresia opening
tri- three
trich/o hair
trigon/o trigone (area within the bladder)
-tripsy to crush
troph/o nourishment; development
-trophy nourishment; development
-tropia to turn
-tropic turning
-tropin stimulate; act on
tympan/o tympanic membrane (eardrum); middle ear
-type classification; picture
-ule little; small
uln/o ulna (medical lower arm bone)
ultra- beyond; excess
-um structure; tissue; thing
umbilic/o umbilicus (navel)
ungu/o nail
uni- one
ur/o urine; urinary tract
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
-uria urination; condition of urine
urin/o urine
-us structure; thing
uter/o uterus (womb)
uve/o uvea, vascular layer of eye (iris, choroid, ciliary body)
uvul/o uvula
vag/o vagus nerve
vagin/o vagina
valv/o valve
valvul/o valve
varic/o varicose veins
vas/o vesel; duct; vas deferens
vascul/o vessel (blood)
ven/o; ven/i vein
vener/o venereal (sexual contact)
ventr/o belly side of body
ventricul/o ventricle (of heart or brain)
venul/o venule (small vein)
-verse to turn
-version to turn
vertebr/o vertebra (backbone)
vesic/o urinary bladder
vesicul/o seminal vesicle
vestibul/o vestibule of the inner ear
viscer/o internal organs
vit/o life
vitr/o vitreous body (of the eye)
vitre/o glass
viv/o life
vol/o to roll
vulv/o vulva (female external genitalia)
xanth/o yellow
xen/o stranger
xer/o dry
xiph/o sword
-y condition; process
zo/o animal life
a-, an- no; not; without
ab- away from
abdomin/o abdomen
-ac pertaining to
acanth/o spiny; thorny
acetabul/o acetabulum (hip socket)
acous/o hearing
acr/o extremities; top; extreme point
acromi/o acromion (extension of shoulder bone)
actin/o light
acu/o sharp; severe; sudden
-acusis hearing
ad- toward
aden/o gland
adenoid/o adenoids
adip/o fat
adren/o adrenal gland
adrenal/o adrenal gland
aer/o air
af- toward
agglutin/o clumping; sticking together
-agon to assemble, gather
agora- marketplace
-agra excessive pain
-al pertaining to
alb/o white
albin/o white
albumin/o albumin (protein)
alges/o sensitivity to pain
-algesia sensitivity to pain
-algia pain
all/o other
alveol/o alveolus; air sac; small sac
ambly/o dim; dull
-amine nitrogen compound
amni/o amnion (sac surrounding the embryo)
amyl/o starch
an/o anus
-an pertaining to
ana- up; apart; backward; again, anew
andr/o male
aneurysm/o aneurysm (widened blood vessel)
angi/o vessel (blood)
anis/o unequal
ankyl/o stiff
ante- before; forward
anter/o front
anthrac/o coal
anthr/o antrum of the stomach
anti- against
anxi/o uneasy; anxious
aort/o aorta (largest artery)
-apheresis removal
aphth/o ulcer
apo- off, away
aponeur/o aponeurosis (type of tendon)
append/o appendix
appendic/o appendix
aque/o water
-ar pertaining to
-arche beginning
arter/o artery
arteri/o artery
arteriol/o arteriole (small artery)
arthr/o joint
-arthria articulate (speak distinctly)
articul/o joint
-ary pertaining to
asbest/o asbestos
-ase enzyme
-asthenia lack of strength
atel/o incomplete
ather/o plaque (fatty substance)
-ation process; condition
atri/o atrium (upper heart chamber)
audi/o hearing
audit/o hearing
aur/o ear
auricul/o ear
auto- self, own
axill/o armpit
azot/o urea; nitrogen
bacill/o bacilli (bacteria)
bacteri/o bacteria
balan/o glans penis
bar/o pressure; weight
bartholin/o Bartholin glands
bas/o base; opposite of acid
bi- two
bi/o life
bil/i bile; gall
bilirubin/o bilirubin
-blast embryonic; immature
-blastoma immature tumor (cells)
blephar/o eyelid
bol/o cast; throw
brachi/o arm
brachy- short
brady- slow
bronch/o bronchial tube
bronchi/o bronchial tube
bronchiol/o bronchiole
bucc/o cheek
bunion/o bunion
burs/o bursa (sac of fluid near joints)
byssin/o cotton dust
cac/o bad
calc/o calcium
calcane/o calcaneus (heel bone)
calci/o calcium
cali/o calyx
calic/o calyx
capillar/o capillary (tiniest blood vessel)
capn/o carbon dioxide
-capnia carbon dioxide
carcin/o cancerous; cancer
cardi/o heart
carp/o wrist bones (carpals)
cata- down
caud/o tail; lower part of body
caus/o burn; burning
cauter/o heat; burn
cec/o cecum (first part of the colon)
-cele hernia
celi/o belly; abdomen
-centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid
cephal/o head
cerebell/o cerebellum (posterior part of the brain)
cerebr/o cerebrum (largest part of the brain)
cerumin/o cerumen
cervic/o neck; cervix (neck of uterus)
-chalasia relaxation
-chalasis relaxation
cheil/o lip
chem/o drug; chemical
-chezia defecation; elimination of wastes
chir/o hand
chlor/o green
chlorhydr/o hydrochloric acid
chol/e bile; gall
cholangi/o bile vessel
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o common bile duct
cholesterol/o cholesterol
chondr/o cartilage
chore/o dance
chori/o chorion (outermost membrane of the fetus)
chorion/o chorion
choroid/o choroid layer of eye
chrom/o color
chron/o time
chym/o to pour
cib/o meal
-cide killing
-cidal pertaining to killing
cine/o movement
cirrh/o orange-yellow
cis/o to cut
-clasis to break
-clast to break
claustr/o enclosed space
clavicul/o clavicle (collar bone)
-clysis irrigation; washing
coagul/o coagulation (clotting)
-coccus (-cocci, pl.) berry-shaped bacterium
coccyg/o coccyx (tailbone)
cochle/o cochlea (inner part of ear)
col/o colon (large intestine)
coll/a glue
colon/o colon (large intestine)
colp/o vagina
comat/o deep sleep
comi/o to care for
con- together, with
coni/o dust
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva (lines the eyelids)
-constriction narrowing
contra- against; opposite
cor/o pupil
core/o pupil
corne/o cornea
coron/o heart
corpor/o body
cortic/o cortex, outer region
cost/o rib
crani/o skull
cras/o mixture; temperament
crin/o secrete
-crine secrete; separate
-crit to separate
cry/o cold
crypt/o hidden
culd/o cul-de-sac
-cusis hearing
cutane/o skin
cyan/o blue
cycl/o ciliary body of eye; cycle; circle
-cyesis pregnancy
cyst/o urinary bladder; cyst; sac of fluid
cyt/o cell
-cyte cell
-cytosis condition of cells; slight increase in numbers
dacry/o tear
dacryoaden/o tear gland
dacryocyst/o tear sac; lacrimal sac
dactyl/o fingers; toes
de- lack of; down; less; removal of
dem/o people
dent/i tooth
derm/o skin
-derma skin
dermat/o skin
desicc/o drying
-desis to bind, tie together
dia- complete; through
diaphor/o sweat
-dilation widening; stretching; expanding
dipl/o double
dips/o thirst
dist/o far; distant
dors/o back (of body)
dorsi- back
-dote to give
-drome to run
duct/o to lead, carry
duoden/o duodenum
dur/o dura mater
-dynia pain
dys- bad; painful; difficult; abnormal
-eal pertaining to
ec- out; outside
echo- reflected sound
-ectasia stretching; dialation; expansion
-ectasis stretching; dialation; expansion
ecto- out; outside
-ectomy removal; excision; resection
-edema swelling
-elasma flat plate
electr/o electricity
em- in
-ema condition
-emesis vomiting
-emia blood condition
-emic pertaining to blood condition
emmetr/o in due measure
en- in; within
encephal/o brain
endo- in; within
enter/o intestines (usually small intestine)
eosin/o red; rosy; dawn-colored
epi- above; upon;/ on
epididym/o epididymis
epiglott/o epiglottis
episi/o vulva (external female genitalia)
epitheli/o skin; epithelium
equin/o horse
-er one who
erg/o work
erythem/o flushed; redness
erythr/o red
-esis condition
eso- inward
esphag/o esophagus
esthes/o nervous sensation (feeling)
esthesi/o nervous sensation
-esthesia nervous sensation
estr/o female
ethm/o sieve
eti/o cause
eu- good; normal
-eurysm widening
ex- out; away from
exanthemat/o rash
exo- out; away from
extra- outside
faci- face
fasci/o fascia (membrane supporting muscles)
femor/o femur (thigh bone)
-ferent to carry
fibr/o fiber
fibros/o fibrous connective tissue
fibul/o fibula
-fication process of making
-fida split
flex/o to bend
fluor/o luminous
follicul/o follicle; small sac
-form resembling; in the shape of
fung/i fungus; mushroom
furc/o forking; branching
-fusion to pour; to come together
galact/o milk
ganglion/o ganglion; collection of nerve cell bodies
gastr/o stomach
-gen producing; forming
-genesis producing; forming
-genic produced by or in
ger/o old age
gest/o pregnancy
gester/o pregnancy
gingiv/o gum
glauc/o gray
gli/o glue; neuroglial tissue (supportive tissue of nervous system)
-globin protein
-globulin protein
glomerul/o glomerulus
gloss/o tongue
gluc/o glucose; sugar
glyc/o glucose; sugar
glycogen/o glycogen; animal starch
glycos/o glucose; sugar
gnos/o knowledge
gon/o seed
gonad/o sex glands
goni/o angle
-grade to go
-gram record
granul/o granule (s)
-graph instrument for recording
-graphy process of recording
gravid/o pregnancy
-gravida pregnant woman
gynec/o woman; female
hallucin/o hallucination
hem/o blood
hemat/o blood
hemi- half
hemoglobin/o hemoglobin
hepat/o liver
herni/o hernia
-hexia habit
hidr/o sweat
hist/o tissue
histi/o tissue
home/o sameness; unchanging; constant
hormon/o hormone
humer/o humerus (upper arm bone)
hydr/o water
hyper- above; excessive
hypn/o sleep
hypo- sleep
hypophys/o pituitary gland
hyster/o uterus; womb
-ia condition
-iac pertaining to
-iasis abnormal condition
iatr/o physician; treatment
-ic pertaining to
-ical pertaining to
ichthy/o dry; scaly
-icle small
idi/o unknown; individual; district
ile/o ileum
ili/o ilium
immun/o immune; protection; safe
in- in; into; not
-in, -ine a substance
-ine pertaining to
infra- below; inferior to; beneath
inguin/o groin
insulin/o insulin (pancreatic hormone)
inter- between
intra- within; into
iod/o iodine
ion/o ion; to wander
-ion process
-ior pertaining to
ipsi- same
ir- in
ir/o iris (colored portion of eye)
irid/o iris (colored portion of eye)
is/o same; equal
isch/o to hold back; back
ischi/o ischium (part of hip bone)
-ism process; condition
-ist specialist
-itis inflammation
-ium structure; tissue
jaund/o yellow
jejun/o jejunum
kal/i potassium
kary/o nucleus
kerat/o horny, hard; cornea
kern- nucleus (collection of nerve cells in the brain)
ket/o ketones; acetones
kenton/o ketones; acetones
kines/o movement
kinesi/o movement
-kinesia movement
-kinesis movement
klept/o to steal
kyph/o humpback
labi/o lip
lacrim/o tear; tear duct; lacrimal duct
lact/o milk
lamin/o lamina (part of vertebral arch)
lapar/o abdominal wall; abdomen
-lapse to slide, fall, sag
laryng/o larynx (voice box)
later/o side
leiomy/o smooth (visceral) muscle
-lemma sheath, covering
-lepsy seizure
lept/o thin, slender
-leptic to seize, take hold of
leth/o death
leuk/o white
lex/o word; phrase
-lexia word; phrase
ligament/o ligament
lingu/o tongue
lip/o fat; lipid
-listhesis slipping
lith/o stone; calculus
-lithiasis condition of stones
-lithotomy incision (for removal) of a stone
lob/o lobe
log/o study of
-logy study of
lord/o curve; swayback
-lucent to shine
lumb/o lower back; loin
lute/o yellow
lux/o to slide
lymph/o lymph
lymphaden/o lymph gland (node)
lymphangi/o lymph vessel
-lysis breakdown; separation; destruction; loosening
-lytic to reduce, destroy; separate; breakdown
macro- large
mal- bad
-malacia softening
malleol/o malleolus
mamm/o breast
mandibul/o mandible (lower jaw bone)
-mania obsessive preoccupation
mast/o breast
mastoid/o mastoid process (behind the ear)
maxill/o maxilla (upper jaw bone)
meat/o meatus (opening)
medi/o middle
mediastin/o mediastinum
medull/o medulla (inner section); middle; soft, marrow
mega- large
-megaly enlargement
melan/o black
men/o menses; menstruation
mening/o meninges (membranes covering the spinal cord and brain)
meningi/o meninges
ment/o mind; chin
meso- middle
meta- change; beyond
metacarp/o metacarpals (hand bones)
metatars/o metatarsals (foot bones)
-meter measure
metr/o uterus (womb); measure
metri/o uterus (womb)
mi/o smaller; less
micro- small
-mimetic mimic; copy
-mission to send
mon/o one; single
morph/o shape; form
mort/o death
-mortem death
-motor movement
muc/o mucus
mucos/o mucous membrane (mucosa)
multi- many
mut/a genetic change
mutagen/o causing genetic change
my/o muscle
myc/o fungus
mydr/o wide
myel/o spinal cord; bone marrow
myocardi/o myocardium (heart muscle)
myom/o muscle tumor
myos/o muscle
myring/o tympanic membrane (eardrum)
myx/o mucus
narc/o numbness; stupor; sleep
nas/o nose
nat/i birth
natr/o sodium
necr/o death
nect/o to bind, tie, connect
neo- new
nephr/o kidney
neur/o nerve
neutr/o neither; neutral; neutrophil
nid/o nest
noct/i night
norm/o rule; order
nos/o disease
nucle/o nucleus
nulli- none
nyct/o night
obstetr/o midwife
ocul/o eye
odont/o tooth
odyn/o pain
-oid resembling
-ole little; small
olecran/o olecranon (elbow)
olig/o scanty
om/o shoulder
-oma tumor; mass; fluid collection
omphal/o umbilicus (naval)
onc/o tumor
-one hormone
onych/o nail (of fingers or toes)
o/o egg
oophor/o ovary
-opaque obscure
ophthalm/o eye
-opia vision
-opsia vision
-opsy view of
opt/o eye; vision
optic/o eye; vision
-or one who
or/o mouth
orch/o testis
orchi/o testis
orchid/o testis
-orexia appetite
orth/o straight
-ose full of; pertaining to; sugar
-osis condition, usually abnormal
-osmia smell
ossicul/o ossicle (small bone)
oste/o bone
-ostosis condition of bone
ot/o ear
-otia ear condition
-ous pertaining to
ov/o egg
ovari/o ovary
ovul/o egg
ox/o oxygen
-oxia oxygen
oxy- swift; sharp; acid
oxysm/o sudden
pachy- heavy; thick
palat/o palate (roof of the mouth)
palpebr/o eyelid
pan- all
pancreat/o pancreas
papill/o nipple-like; optic disc (disk)
par- other than; abnormal
para- near; beside; abnormal; apart from; along the side of
-para to bear, bring forth (live births)
-parous to bear, bring forth
parathyroid/o parathyroid glands
-paresis slight paralysis
-pareunia sexual intercourse
-partum birth; labor
patell/a patella
patell/o patella
path/o disease
-pathy disease; emotion
pector/o chest
ped/o child; foot
pelv/i pelvic bone; hip
pend/o to hang
-penia deficiency
-pepsia digestion
per- through
peri- surrounding
perine/o perineum
peritone/o peritoneum
perone/o fibula
-pexy fixation; to put in place
phac/o lens of eye
phag/o eat; swallow
-phage eat; swallow
-phagia eating; swallowing
phak/o lens of eye
phalang/o phalanges (fingers and toes)
phall/o penis
pharmac/o drug
pharmaceut/o drug
pharyng/o throat (pharynx)
phas/o speech
-phasia speech
phe/o dusky; dark
-pheresis removal
phil/o like; love; attraction
-phil attraction for
-philia attraction for
phim/o muzzle
phleb/o vein
phob/o fear
-phobia fear
phon/o voice; sound
-phonia voice; sound
-phor/o to bear
-phoresis carrying; transmission
-phoria to bear, carry; feeling (mental state)
phot/o light
phren/o diaphragm; mind
-phthisis wasting away
-phylaxis protection
physi/o nature; function
-physis to grow
phyt/o plant
-phyte plant
pil/o hair
pineal/o pineal gland
pituitar/o pituitary gland
-plakia plaque
plant/o sole of the foot
plas/o development; formation
-plasia development; formation; growth
-plasm formation
-plastic pertaining to formation
-plasty surgical repair
ple/o more; many
-plegia paralysis; palsy
-plegic paralysis; palsy
pleur/o pleura
plex/o plexus; network (of nerves)
-pnea breathing
pneum/o lung; air; gas
pneumon/o lung; air; gas
pod/o foot
-poiesis formation
-poietin substance that forms
poikil/o varied; irregular
pol/o extreme
polio- gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)
poly- many; much
polyp/o polyp; small growth
pont/o pons (a part of the brain)
-porosis condition of pores (spaces)
post- after; behind
poster/o back (of body); behind
-prandial meal
-praxia action
pre- before; in front of
presby/o old age
primi- first
pro- before; forward
proct/o anus and rectum
pros- before; forward
prostat/o prostate gland
prot/o first
prote/o protein
proxim/o near
prurit/o itching
pseudo- false
psych/o mind
-ptosis droop; sag; prolapse; fall
-ptysis spitting
pub/o pubis (anterior part of hip bone)
pulmon/o lung
pupill/o pupil (dark center of the eye)
purul/o pus
py/o pus
pyel/o renal pelvis
pylor/o pylorus; pyloric sphincter
pyr/o fever; fire
pyret/o fever
pyrex/o fever
quadri- four
rachi/o spinal column; vertebrae
radi/o x-rays; radioactivity; radius (lateral lower arm bone)
radicul/o nerve root
re- back; again; backward
rect/o rectum
ren/o kidney
reticul/o network
retin/o retina
retro- behind; back; backward
rhabdomy/o straited (skeletal) muscle
rheumat/o watery flow
rhin/o nose
rhytid/o wrinkle
roentgen/o x-rays
-rrhage bursting forth (of blood)
-rrhagia bursting forth (of blood)
--rrhaphy suture
-rrhea flow; discharge
-rrhexis rupture
rrhythm/o rhythm
sacr/o sacrum
salping/o fallopian tube; auditory (eustachian) tube
-salpinx fallopian tube; oviduct
sarc/o flesh (connective tissue)
scapul/o scapula; shoulder blade
-schisis to split
schiz/o split
scint/o spark
scirrh/o hard
scler/o sclera (white of eye); hard
-sclerosis hardening
scoli/o crooked; bent
-scope instrument for visual examination
-scopy visual examination
scot/o darkness
seb/o sebum
sebace/o sebum
sect/o to cut
semi- half
semin/i semen; seed
seps/o infection
sial/o saliva
sialaden/o salivary gland
sider/o iron
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
silic/o glass
sinus/o sinus
-sis state of; condition
-sol solution
somat/o body
-some body
somn/o sleep
-somnia sleep
son/o sound
-spadia to tear; cut
-spasm sudden contraction of muscles
sperm/o spermatozoa; sperm cells
spermat/o spermatozoa; sperm cells
sphen/o wedge; sphenoid bone
spher/o globe-shaped; round
sphygm/o pulse
-sphyxia pulse
splanchn/o viscera (internal organs)
spin/o spine (backbone)
spir/o to breathe
splen/o spleen
spondyl/o vertebra (backbone)
squam/o scale
-stalsis contraction
staped/o stapes (middle ear bone)
staphyl/o clusters; uvula
-stasis to stop; control; place
-static pertaining to stopping; controlling
steat/o fat, sebum
-stenosis tightening; stricture
ster/o solid structure; steroid
stere/o solid; three-dimensional
stern/o sternum (breastbone)
steth/o chest
-sthenia strength
-stitial to set; pertaining to standing or positioned
stomat/o mouth
-stomia condition of the mouth
-stomy new opening (to form a mouth)
strept/o twisted chains
styl/o pole or stake
sub- under; below
submaxill/o mandible (lower jaw bone)
-suppression to stop
supra- above, upper
sym- together; with
syn- together; with
syncop/o to cut off, cut short; faint
syndesm/o ligament
synov/o synovia; synovial membrane; sheath around a tendon
syring/o tube
tachy- fast
tars/o tarsus; hindfoot or ankle (7 bones between the foot and the leg)
tax/o order; coordination
tel/o complete
tele/o distant
ten/o tendon
tendin/o tendon
-tension pressure
terat/o monster; malformed fetus
test/o testis (testicle)
tetra- four
thalam/o thalamus
thalass/o sea
the/o put; place
thec/o sheath
thel/o nipple
therapeut/o treatment
-therapy treatment
therm/o heat
thorac/o chest
-thorax chest; pleural cavity
thromb/o clot
thym/o thymus gland
-thymia mind (condition of)
-thymic pertaining to mind
thyr/o thyroid gland; shield
thyroid/o thyroid gland
tibi/o tibia (shin bone)
-tic pertaining to
toc/o labor; birth
-tocia labor; birth (condition of)
-tocin labor; birth (a substance for)
tom/o to cut
-tome instrument to cut
-tomy process of cutting
ton/o tension
tone/o to stretch
tonsill/o tonsil
top/o place; position; location
tox/o poison
toxic/o poison
trache/o trachea (windpipe)
trans- across; through
-tresia opening
tri- three
trich/o hair
trigon/o trigone (area within the bladder)
-tripsy to crush
troph/o nourishment; development
-trophy nourishment; development
-tropia to turn
-tropic turning
-tropin stimulate; act on
tympan/o tympanic membrane (eardrum); middle ear
-type classification; picture
-ule little; small
uln/o ulna (medical lower arm bone)
ultra- beyond; excess
-um structure; tissue; thing
umbilic/o umbilicus (navel)
ungu/o nail
uni- one
ur/o urine; urinary tract
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
-uria urination; condition of urine
urin/o urine
-us structure; thing
uter/o uterus (womb)
uve/o uvea, vascular layer of eye (iris, choroid, ciliary body)
uvul/o uvula
vag/o vagus nerve
vagin/o vagina
valv/o valve
valvul/o valve
varic/o varicose veins
vas/o vesel; duct; vas deferens
vascul/o vessel (blood)
ven/o; ven/i vein
vener/o venereal (sexual contact)
ventr/o belly side of body
ventricul/o ventricle (of heart or brain)
venul/o venule (small vein)
-verse to turn
-version to turn
vertebr/o vertebra (backbone)
vesic/o urinary bladder
vesicul/o seminal vesicle
vestibul/o vestibule of the inner ear
viscer/o internal organs
vit/o life
vitr/o vitreous body (of the eye)
vitre/o glass
viv/o life
vol/o to roll
vulv/o vulva (female external genitalia)
xanth/o yellow
xen/o stranger
xer/o dry
xiph/o sword
-y condition; process
zo/o animal life
Medical Term Meaning
adeno gland
calculi stone
cele tumor, cyst; hernia
cyto cell
glyco sugar
homo, homeo alike, similar
lingua tongue
lip fat
lith stone
madaro falling hair
psych mind
pyo pus
radi rays
thermic heat
arthro joint
carpo wrist
chondro cartilage
costa rib
cranio skull
dactyl finger, toe, digit
ili hip
manus hand
myel bone marrow, spinal cord
myo muscle
ortho straighten
osteo bone
pedi foot, child, infant
spondyl vertebra
cutis skin
dent teeth
derma skin
hapsia touch
odont teeth
onco tumor
onychia nail bed
pedicular lice
prurigo itching
psora itch
sarco flesh
sclero hard
squama scaly
tricho hair
chole gallbladder, bile
colon large intestine
emesis vomiting
entero intestines
gastro stomach
glosso tongue
hepat liver
ile ileum
laparo abdomen
myxo mucus
procto anus, rectum
pylor pylorus, gatekeeper
stoma mouth, opening
viscero body organs
angio vessel
aortal aorta, main artery
arterio artery
cardio heart
emboli vessel obstruction
emia blood
hemo blood
phleb vein
thrombo blood clot
varico varicose veins
vena vein
ventricu heart cavity
broncho airway
cili hairlike process
ectasis expansion
laryngo voice box, larynx
naso nose
oro mouth
oxy oxygen
pector chest, breast
pleura rib side
pneumo lung
ptysis spit, sputum
pulmo lung
rhin nose
tracheo windpipe
creatinine waste material in urine
cysto bladder
glomerulo nephron part; little ball
nephro kidney
peritoneo lining of abdominal organs
pyelo pelvis
reni kidney
uretero ureter
urethro urethra
uri, uro, urina urine
uric pertaining to urine
bulbo bulblike; bulboeurethral gland
cervi neck
galacto milk
genito reproductive system
hyster uterus
lactin milk
mast breast
metr uterus
natal born
oophoro ovary
orchido testicle
ova,ovi,ovo egg
salping fallopian tube
sperma, spermato seed, sperm
vas duct; vessel (vas deferens)
audio sound
cerebro brain
enecephalo brain
esthesia sensation
medulla brain middle
meningo membranes of spinal cord
neuro nerve
occiput back of skull
oculo eye
ophthalmo eye
oto ear
parietes wall part of brain
pons bridge
tempora temporal
Medical Term Meaning
adeno gland
calculi stone
cele tumor, cyst; hernia
cyto cell
glyco sugar
homo, homeo alike, similar
lingua tongue
lip fat
lith stone
madaro falling hair
psych mind
pyo pus
radi rays
thermic heat
arthro joint
carpo wrist
chondro cartilage
costa rib
cranio skull
dactyl finger, toe, digit
ili hip
manus hand
myel bone marrow, spinal cord
myo muscle
ortho straighten
osteo bone
pedi foot, child, infant
spondyl vertebra
cutis skin
dent teeth
derma skin
hapsia touch
odont teeth
onco tumor
onychia nail bed
pedicular lice
prurigo itching
psora itch
sarco flesh
sclero hard
squama scaly
tricho hair
chole gallbladder, bile
colon large intestine
emesis vomiting
entero intestines
gastro stomach
glosso tongue
hepat liver
ile ileum
laparo abdomen
myxo mucus
procto anus, rectum
pylor pylorus, gatekeeper
stoma mouth, opening
viscero body organs
angio vessel
aortal aorta, main artery
arterio artery
cardio heart
emboli vessel obstruction
emia blood
hemo blood
phleb vein
thrombo blood clot
varico varicose veins
vena vein
ventricu heart cavity
broncho airway
cili hairlike process
ectasis expansion
laryngo voice box, larynx
naso nose
oro mouth
oxy oxygen
pector chest, breast
pleura rib side
pneumo lung
ptysis spit, sputum
pulmo lung
rhin nose
tracheo windpipe
creatinine waste material in urine
cysto bladder
glomerulo nephron part; little ball
nephro kidney
peritoneo lining of abdominal organs
pyelo pelvis
reni kidney
uretero ureter
urethro urethra
uri, uro, urina urine
uric pertaining to urine
bulbo bulblike; bulboeurethral gland
cervi neck
galacto milk
genito reproductive system
hyster uterus
lactin milk
mast breast
metr uterus
natal born
oophoro ovary
orchido testicle
ova,ovi,ovo egg
salping fallopian tube
sperma, spermato seed, sperm
vas duct; vessel (vas deferens)
audio sound
cerebro brain
enecephalo brain
esthesia sensation
medulla brain middle
meningo membranes of spinal cord
neuro nerve
occiput back of skull
oculo eye
ophthalmo eye
oto ear
parietes wall part of brain
pons bridge
tempora temporal
All prefixes
Question Answer
an-, a- none
brachy- short
mega-, macro- large
micro- small
olig(o)- little, small, scanty
per- excessive thorought
alba- white
chloro- green
chromo- color
cirrh- yellow
cyano- blue
erythro- red
leuko- white
melano- black
rube- red
xantho- yellow
anklyo- crooked, bent
apex- point
calyx-, calix- cup shape
eury- broad or flat
pachy- thick
platy- flat
steno- narrow, contracted
acro- extremity, tip
anti- against
circum- around
contra- opposite, against
dorso-, dorsi- back
ecto- outside, misplaced
endo- within
epi- on, over, upon
extra- outside of, in addition to, beyond
fore- before, infront
hyper- above, excessive, beyond
hypo- below, under
infra- below
inter- between parts
juxta- near
medi-, meso- middle
ob- against, in the way, opposite
para- beside, beyond
peri- around
sub- beneath
supra- above, over
trans- across, through, over, beyond
ultra- excessive, extreme
ana- up, back again
ante- before
cata-, kata- down, through
gen- beginning, orgin
meta- beyond, over, between, change or next to
nocti- night
post- after
pre- before
prim-, prot(o)- first
sym-, syn- together, union
ter(t)- third
mono-, uni- one
bi-, di- two
tri- three
quadri-, tetra- four
quint- five
sex-, ses-, hexa- six
sepa-, hepta- seven
octo-, octa-, octi- eight
nonu-, nona-, noni- nine
deca-, dec- ten
cent- one hundred
milli one thousand
ambi- both
deci- 1/10, one tenth
semi-, demi-, hemi- 1/2
diplo- double
multi- many
null(i)- no, none
pan- all
poly- many
a-, an- without, absent
ambly- different from, another, dull
andro- male
angi(o)- vessel or duct, usually a blood vessel
atel- imperfect
aut(o)- self
bacter bacteria
bi(o)- life
co-, con-, com- with
cry(o)- cold
crypto- hidden
dys- difficult
gluco-, glyco- sugar, sweet
gyn-, gyneco- female
hetero other, different
homeo-, homo- same
hydro-, hydra- water
idio- distinct, peculiar to the individual
iso- same, equal
mal- bad
neo- new, strange
non- not
norm(o)- normal
ortho- straight
oxy- sharp, acute, rapid
path(o)- disease, suffering
phage(o)- eat, consume
pseudo- false
sclero- hard
stereo- solid, firmly established, three dimensional
tachy- fast
terato- malformed, monster
therap- treatment
thermo- heat, warmth
toxic- poison
xero- dry
brady- slow
ab- away
ad- to, toward
de- to do the opposite of, remove, away
dextro- right
e- out
ex away from, out, completely
in-, im- in, inside, within, not
ir- against, into, toward
pro- forward, anterior
re- back, again
retro- behind, backward
sinister(o)- left
All prefixes
Question Answer
an-, a- none
brachy- short
mega-, macro- large
micro- small
olig(o)- little, small, scanty
per- excessive thorought
alba- white
chloro- green
chromo- color
cirrh- yellow
cyano- blue
erythro- red
leuko- white
melano- black
rube- red
xantho- yellow
anklyo- crooked, bent
apex- point
calyx-, calix- cup shape
eury- broad or flat
pachy- thick
platy- flat
steno- narrow, contracted
acro- extremity, tip
anti- against
circum- around
contra- opposite, against
dorso-, dorsi- back
ecto- outside, misplaced
endo- within
epi- on, over, upon
extra- outside of, in addition to, beyond
fore- before, infront
hyper- above, excessive, beyond
hypo- below, under
infra- below
inter- between parts
juxta- near
medi-, meso- middle
ob- against, in the way, opposite
para- beside, beyond
peri- around
sub- beneath
supra- above, over
trans- across, through, over, beyond
ultra- excessive, extreme
ana- up, back again
ante- before
cata-, kata- down, through
gen- beginning, orgin
meta- beyond, over, between, change or next to
nocti- night
post- after
pre- before
prim-, prot(o)- first
sym-, syn- together, union
ter(t)- third
mono-, uni- one
bi-, di- two
tri- three
quadri-, tetra- four
quint- five
sex-, ses-, hexa- six
sepa-, hepta- seven
octo-, octa-, octi- eight
nonu-, nona-, noni- nine
deca-, dec- ten
cent- one hundred
milli one thousand
ambi- both
deci- 1/10, one tenth
semi-, demi-, hemi- 1/2
diplo- double
multi- many
null(i)- no, none
pan- all
poly- many
a-, an- without, absent
ambly- different from, another, dull
andro- male
angi(o)- vessel or duct, usually a blood vessel
atel- imperfect
aut(o)- self
bacter bacteria
bi(o)- life
co-, con-, com- with
cry(o)- cold
crypto- hidden
dys- difficult
gluco-, glyco- sugar, sweet
gyn-, gyneco- female
hetero other, different
homeo-, homo- same
hydro-, hydra- water
idio- distinct, peculiar to the individual
iso- same, equal
mal- bad
neo- new, strange
non- not
norm(o)- normal
ortho- straight
oxy- sharp, acute, rapid
path(o)- disease, suffering
phage(o)- eat, consume
pseudo- false
sclero- hard
stereo- solid, firmly established, three dimensional
tachy- fast
terato- malformed, monster
therap- treatment
thermo- heat, warmth
toxic- poison
xero- dry
brady- slow
ab- away
ad- to, toward
de- to do the opposite of, remove, away
dextro- right
e- out
ex away from, out, completely
in-, im- in, inside, within, not
ir- against, into, toward
pro- forward, anterior
re- back, again
retro- behind, backward
sinister(o)- left
MedTerms
suffixes-
Question Answer
-rrhexis rupture
-sarcoma malignant tumor
-schisis split, fissure
-sclerosis hardening
-scope instrument for examining
-scopy visual examination
-sepsis infection
-spasm sudden involuntary muscle contraction
-stasis control, stop
-stenosis narrowing
-stomy surgical opening
-tome instrument for
-tomy cutting, incision
-tripsy surgical crushing
-trophy nourishment, development
-ule little
-ac -al -ic -ar -ial -ary -ous -tic -eal pertaining to, related to, located in
-agra excessive pain
-algia pain
-apheresis removal
-asthenia weakness
-ase enzyme
-ate use, subject to
-atresia absence of normal body opening
-capnia carbon dioxide
-cele protrusion, hernia
-centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid
-cidal killing
-clasia -clast break
-cle -cule -ole -ola -ule -ulum -ulus small
-clysis irrigation, washint
-coccus -coccis berry shaped
-crit to separate
-crine separate, secrete
-cyte cell
-desis surgical fixation
-drome run, running
-dynia pain
-ectasis dilation, expansion
-ectomy surgical removal
-ectopic displacement
-emesis vomit
-emia blood condition
-ent-er-ist-or person or agent
-esis -ia -a -ism -ity -y -osis -tion -sis -iasis -sia state or condition, disease
-form -oid resembling, shaped like
-gen -genic producing, causing
-genesis beginning, origin
-gram record
-graph instrument that records
-graphy process of recording
-iac person afflicted with
-ible -ile capable, able
-ician one who
-ictal seizure, attack
-ist -ologist a specialist in
-ites -itis inflammation
-ium membrane
-ize use, subject to
-logy science, study of
-lysis -lytic destry, separation
-ma -mat disease, condition
-malacia softening
-mania madness
-megaly enlargement
-metor instrument used to measure
-metry measurement
-morph form, shape
-oma tumor
-opsy to view
-oxia oxygen
-paresis slight paralysis
-pathy disease
-penia deficient, lack of
-pepsia digestion
-pexy -pexis fixation storing
-phagia -phagy eating, swallowing
-philia -phily love
-phobia abnormal fear, intolerance
-phonia pertaining to sound
-phoria feeling
-physis growth
-plasia -plasm formation, development
-plasty surgical repair
-plegia paralysis
-pnea breathing
-poiesis formation
-porosis passage
-prandial meal
-praxia in front of, before
-ptosis drooping, downward displacement
-rrhage -rrhagia excessive flow
-rrhaphy suturing in place
-rrhea flow or discharge
MedTerms
suffixes-
Question Answer
-rrhexis rupture
-sarcoma malignant tumor
-schisis split, fissure
-sclerosis hardening
-scope instrument for examining
-scopy visual examination
-sepsis infection
-spasm sudden involuntary muscle contraction
-stasis control, stop
-stenosis narrowing
-stomy surgical opening
-tome instrument for
-tomy cutting, incision
-tripsy surgical crushing
-trophy nourishment, development
-ule little
-ac -al -ic -ar -ial -ary -ous -tic -eal pertaining to, related to, located in
-agra excessive pain
-algia pain
-apheresis removal
-asthenia weakness
-ase enzyme
-ate use, subject to
-atresia absence of normal body opening
-capnia carbon dioxide
-cele protrusion, hernia
-centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid
-cidal killing
-clasia -clast break
-cle -cule -ole -ola -ule -ulum -ulus small
-clysis irrigation, washint
-coccus -coccis berry shaped
-crit to separate
-crine separate, secrete
-cyte cell
-desis surgical fixation
-drome run, running
-dynia pain
-ectasis dilation, expansion
-ectomy surgical removal
-ectopic displacement
-emesis vomit
-emia blood condition
-ent-er-ist-or person or agent
-esis -ia -a -ism -ity -y -osis -tion -sis -iasis -sia state or condition, disease
-form -oid resembling, shaped like
-gen -genic producing, causing
-genesis beginning, origin
-gram record
-graph instrument that records
-graphy process of recording
-iac person afflicted with
-ible -ile capable, able
-ician one who
-ictal seizure, attack
-ist -ologist a specialist in
-ites -itis inflammation
-ium membrane
-ize use, subject to
-logy science, study of
-lysis -lytic destry, separation
-ma -mat disease, condition
-malacia softening
-mania madness
-megaly enlargement
-metor instrument used to measure
-metry measurement
-morph form, shape
-oma tumor
-opsy to view
-oxia oxygen
-paresis slight paralysis
-pathy disease
-penia deficient, lack of
-pepsia digestion
-pexy -pexis fixation storing
-phagia -phagy eating, swallowing
-philia -phily love
-phobia abnormal fear, intolerance
-phonia pertaining to sound
-phoria feeling
-physis growth
-plasia -plasm formation, development
-plasty surgical repair
-plegia paralysis
-pnea breathing
-poiesis formation
-porosis passage
-prandial meal
-praxia in front of, before
-ptosis drooping, downward displacement
-rrhage -rrhagia excessive flow
-rrhaphy suturing in place
-rrhea flow or discharge
Combining Forms of medical terms
Combining Form Meaning
aden/o gland
arthr/o joint
bi/o life
carcin/o cancerous, cancer
cardi/o heart
cephal/o head
cerebr/o cerebrum (largest part of the brain)
cis/o to cut
crin/o secrete (to form and give off)
cyst/o urinary bladder; a sac or cyst (sac containing fluid)
cyt/o cell
derm/o; dermat/o skin
electr/o electricity
encephal/o brain
enter/o intestine
erythr/o red
gastr/o stomach
gnos/o knowledge
gynec/o woman, female
hemat/o; hem/o blood
hepat/o liver
iatr/o treatment
leuk/o white
nephr/o kidney
neur/o nerve
onc/o tumor
ophthalm/o eye
oste/o bone
path/o disease
ped/o child
psych/o mind
radi/o x-rays
ren/o kidney
rhin/o nose
sarc/o flesh
sect/o to cut
thromb/o clot, clotting
ur/o urinary tract, urine
abdomin/o abdomen
adip/o fat
anter/o front
bol/o to cast; throw
cervic/o neck (of the body or of the uterus)
chondr/o cartilage (type of connective tissue)
chrom/o color
coccyg/o coccyx (tailbone)
crani/o skull
dist/o far, distant
dors/o back portion of the body
hist/o tissue
ili/o ilium (part of the pelvic bone)
inguin/o groin
kary/o nucleus
later/o side
lumb/o lower back (side and back between the ribs and pelvis)
medi/o middle
nucle/o nucleus
pelv/o hip, pelvic cavity
poster/o back, behind
proximo nearest
sacr/o sacrum
sarc/o flesh
spin/o spine, backbone
thel/o nipple
thorac/o chest
trache/o trachea, windpipe
umbilic/o navel, umbilicus
ventr/o belly side of the body
vertebr/o vertebrae, backbones
viscer/o internal organs
acr/o extremities, top, extreme point
acu/o sharp, severe, sudden
agor/a marketplace
amni/o amnion (sac surrounding the embryo in the uterus)
angi/o vessel
arteri/o artery
arthr/o joint
axill/o armpit
blephar/o eyelid
bronch/o bronchial tubes (two tubes, one right and one left, that branch from the trachea to enter the lungs)
chem/o drug, chemical
chron/o time
col/o colon (large intestine)
hydr/o water, fluid
isch/o to hold back
lapar/o abdomen, abdominal wall
laryng/o larynx, voice box
lymph/o lymph, a clear fluid that bathes tissue spaces
mamm/o breast
mast/o breast
morph/o shape, form
muc/o mucus
my/o muscle
myel/o spinal cord, bone marrow
necr/o death (of cells or whole body)
neutr/o neutrophil (WBC)
ot/o ear
peritone/o peritoneum
phag/o to eat, swallow
phleb/o vein
plas/o formation, development
pleur/o pleura (membranes surrounding lungs and adjacent to chest wall muscles)
pneumon/o lungs
pulmon/o lungs
rect/o rectum
splen/o spleen
staphyl/o clusters
strept/o twisted chains
thorac/o chest
tonsill/o tonsils
trache/o trachea (windpipe)
carp/o wrist bones
cib/o meals
cost/o rib
cutane/o skin
dactyl/o fingers, toes
duct/o to lead, carry
flex/o to bend
furc/o forking, branching
gloss/o tongue
glyc/o sugar
immun/o protection
mort/o death
nat/i birth
nect/o to bind, tie, connect
norm/o rule, order
ox/o oxygen
pub/o pubis (pubic bone); anterior portion of the pelvic or hipbone
seps/o infection
somn/o sleep
son/o sound
the/o to put, place
thyr/o shield (shape of thyroid gland resembled shield to those who named it)
top/o place, position, location
tox/o poison
urethr/o urethra
an/o anus
append/o appendix
appendic/o appendix
bucc/o cheek
cec/o cecum
celi/o belly, abdomen
cheil/o lip
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o common bile duct
colon/o colon
dent/i tooth
duoden/o duodenum
esophag/o esophagus
faci/o face
gingiv/o gms
ile/o ileum
jejun/o jejunum
labi/o lip
lingu/o tongue
mandibul/o lower jaw, mandible
odont/o tooth
orth/o straight
or/o mouth
palat/o palate
pancreat/o pancreas
pharyng/o throat
proct/o anus and rectum
pylor/o pyloric sphincter
sialaden/o salivary gland
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
stomat/o mouth
amyl/o starch
bil/i gall, bile
bilirubin/o bilirubin (bile pigment)
chol/e gall, bile
chlorhydr/o hydrochloric acid
gluc/o; glyc/o sugar
glycogen/o glycogen, animal starch
lip/o fat, lipid
lith/o stone
prote/o protein
sial/o saliva, salivary gland
steat/o fat
cholangi/o bile vessel
aer/o air
alges/o sensitivity to pain
cras/o mixture
erg/o work
esthes/o feeling, sensation
hypn/o sleep
myc/o mold, fungus
narc/o stupor
pharmac/o drug
prurit/o itching
pyret/o fever
thec/o sheath (of brain and spinal cord)
tox/o, toxic/o poison
vas/o vessel
vit/o life
cheir, chir hand
colla glue; gelatinlike; starch
gingiv/o gum
glauc/o gray
gli/o neuroglia (glue)
-globin protein
-glovulin protein
glomerul/o glomerulus
gloss tongue
glucos/o sugar
-glute buttocks
glyc/o sugar, sweetness
steat/o fat
Combining Forms of medical terms
Combining Form Meaning
aden/o gland
arthr/o joint
bi/o life
carcin/o cancerous, cancer
cardi/o heart
cephal/o head
cerebr/o cerebrum (largest part of the brain)
cis/o to cut
crin/o secrete (to form and give off)
cyst/o urinary bladder; a sac or cyst (sac containing fluid)
cyt/o cell
derm/o; dermat/o skin
electr/o electricity
encephal/o brain
enter/o intestine
erythr/o red
gastr/o stomach
gnos/o knowledge
gynec/o woman, female
hemat/o; hem/o blood
hepat/o liver
iatr/o treatment
leuk/o white
nephr/o kidney
neur/o nerve
onc/o tumor
ophthalm/o eye
oste/o bone
path/o disease
ped/o child
psych/o mind
radi/o x-rays
ren/o kidney
rhin/o nose
sarc/o flesh
sect/o to cut
thromb/o clot, clotting
ur/o urinary tract, urine
abdomin/o abdomen
adip/o fat
anter/o front
bol/o to cast; throw
cervic/o neck (of the body or of the uterus)
chondr/o cartilage (type of connective tissue)
chrom/o color
coccyg/o coccyx (tailbone)
crani/o skull
dist/o far, distant
dors/o back portion of the body
hist/o tissue
ili/o ilium (part of the pelvic bone)
inguin/o groin
kary/o nucleus
later/o side
lumb/o lower back (side and back between the ribs and pelvis)
medi/o middle
nucle/o nucleus
pelv/o hip, pelvic cavity
poster/o back, behind
proximo nearest
sacr/o sacrum
sarc/o flesh
spin/o spine, backbone
thel/o nipple
thorac/o chest
trache/o trachea, windpipe
umbilic/o navel, umbilicus
ventr/o belly side of the body
vertebr/o vertebrae, backbones
viscer/o internal organs
acr/o extremities, top, extreme point
acu/o sharp, severe, sudden
agor/a marketplace
amni/o amnion (sac surrounding the embryo in the uterus)
angi/o vessel
arteri/o artery
arthr/o joint
axill/o armpit
blephar/o eyelid
bronch/o bronchial tubes (two tubes, one right and one left, that branch from the trachea to enter the lungs)
chem/o drug, chemical
chron/o time
col/o colon (large intestine)
hydr/o water, fluid
isch/o to hold back
lapar/o abdomen, abdominal wall
laryng/o larynx, voice box
lymph/o lymph, a clear fluid that bathes tissue spaces
mamm/o breast
mast/o breast
morph/o shape, form
muc/o mucus
my/o muscle
myel/o spinal cord, bone marrow
necr/o death (of cells or whole body)
neutr/o neutrophil (WBC)
ot/o ear
peritone/o peritoneum
phag/o to eat, swallow
phleb/o vein
plas/o formation, development
pleur/o pleura (membranes surrounding lungs and adjacent to chest wall muscles)
pneumon/o lungs
pulmon/o lungs
rect/o rectum
splen/o spleen
staphyl/o clusters
strept/o twisted chains
thorac/o chest
tonsill/o tonsils
trache/o trachea (windpipe)
carp/o wrist bones
cib/o meals
cost/o rib
cutane/o skin
dactyl/o fingers, toes
duct/o to lead, carry
flex/o to bend
furc/o forking, branching
gloss/o tongue
glyc/o sugar
immun/o protection
mort/o death
nat/i birth
nect/o to bind, tie, connect
norm/o rule, order
ox/o oxygen
pub/o pubis (pubic bone); anterior portion of the pelvic or hipbone
seps/o infection
somn/o sleep
son/o sound
the/o to put, place
thyr/o shield (shape of thyroid gland resembled shield to those who named it)
top/o place, position, location
tox/o poison
urethr/o urethra
an/o anus
append/o appendix
appendic/o appendix
bucc/o cheek
cec/o cecum
celi/o belly, abdomen
cheil/o lip
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o common bile duct
colon/o colon
dent/i tooth
duoden/o duodenum
esophag/o esophagus
faci/o face
gingiv/o gms
ile/o ileum
jejun/o jejunum
labi/o lip
lingu/o tongue
mandibul/o lower jaw, mandible
odont/o tooth
orth/o straight
or/o mouth
palat/o palate
pancreat/o pancreas
pharyng/o throat
proct/o anus and rectum
pylor/o pyloric sphincter
sialaden/o salivary gland
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
stomat/o mouth
amyl/o starch
bil/i gall, bile
bilirubin/o bilirubin (bile pigment)
chol/e gall, bile
chlorhydr/o hydrochloric acid
gluc/o; glyc/o sugar
glycogen/o glycogen, animal starch
lip/o fat, lipid
lith/o stone
prote/o protein
sial/o saliva, salivary gland
steat/o fat
cholangi/o bile vessel
aer/o air
alges/o sensitivity to pain
cras/o mixture
erg/o work
esthes/o feeling, sensation
hypn/o sleep
myc/o mold, fungus
narc/o stupor
pharmac/o drug
prurit/o itching
pyret/o fever
thec/o sheath (of brain and spinal cord)
tox/o, toxic/o poison
vas/o vessel
vit/o life
cheir, chir hand
colla glue; gelatinlike; starch
gingiv/o gum
glauc/o gray
gli/o neuroglia (glue)
-globin protein
-glovulin protein
glomerul/o glomerulus
gloss tongue
glucos/o sugar
-glute buttocks
glyc/o sugar, sweetness
steat/o fat
Abbreviations
Question Answer
aa of each
Ab abortion
abd abdomen
abs absent
ac before meals
ad lib as desired
admin administer
AM or a.m. before noon
AP Apical pulse
amt amount
approx approx
appt appointment
ASA acetylsalicylic acid (acid)
ASAP As soon as possible
BA Backache
b/c because
BC Birth control
bid twice a day
BM Bowel movement
BP blood pressure
BPM beats per minute
BS blood sugar
BSE breast self-examination
c with
caps capsules
cath catheter, catherize
CC chief complaint
chemo chemotherapy
CMA certified medical assistant
c/o complains of
CS cesarean section
Cx cervix
d day
/d per day
d/c discontinue
D and I dry and intact
dil dilute
disch discharge
DNKA did not keep appointment
DOB date of birth
DOI date of injury
DRE digital rectal examination
DSD dry, sterile dressing
DTaP diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine
D and V diarrhea and vomiting
DVA distance visual acuity
ea each
ED emergency department
EDD expected due date
Fe iron
flex sig flexible sigmoidoscopy
freq frequent
F/U follow up
Fx fracture
GYN gynecology
h or hr hour
H/A headache
HBP high blood pressure
HC head circumference
Hep B hepatitis B vaccine
Hg Mercury
H2o Water
HR heart rate
HRT hormone replacement therapy
hs at bedtime
ht height
ID intradermal
IM intramuscular
IPV inactivated polio vaccine
IV intravenous
lab laboratory
lac laceration
lat lateral
lax laxative
LB lower back
LBP lower back pain
liq liquid
LMP last menstral period
med,meds medication(s)
min minute
MMR measles, mumps, and rubella
mod moderate
N/A not applicable
NB newborn
N/C no complaints
neg negative
NH nursing home
NICU newborn intensive care unit
noct nocturnal
NS normal saline
N and V nausea and vomiting
NVA near visual acuity
NVD NAUSEA, VOMITING, AND DIARRHEA
OB obstretrics
occ occasionally
oint ointment
op operation
OR operating room
OT occupational therapy
OTC over-the-counter
OV office visit
p pulse
Pap Pap test
path pathology
pc after meals
peds pediatrics
PEN penicillin
per by or through
pharm pharmacy
PM or p.m. after noon
PMS premenstrual syndrome
po or PO by mouth
pos positive
postop postoperative (after surgery)
preop preoperative (before surgery)
prep preperation
prn as needed
PT Physical therapy
Pt or pt patient
qd everyday
qh every hour
q(2,3,4)h every (2,3,4) hours
qid four times a day
qn every night
QNS quality not sufficient
qod every other day
QS quality sufficient
quad quadriplegic
R respiration
RE rectal examination
reg regular
rehab rehabilitation
RMA registered medical assistant
Rx perscription
s without
SC or SQ subcutaneous
S/E side effects
sec second
sigmoid sigmoidoscopy
sl slight
sm small
SOB shortness of breath
sol solution
spec specimen
STAT immediately
surg surgery
T temperature
tab, tabs tablet(s)
temp temperature
ther therapy
tid three times a day
TLC tender love car & total lung capcity
TPR temp, pulse and respiration
tr trace
TSE testicular self-examination
vag vagina, vaginal
VE vaginal examination
vit vitamin
VO verbal order
VS vital signs
wk week
kg kilogram
L liter
l length
lb pound
m meter
mcg microgram
mg milligram
ml milliliter
mm millimeter
oz ounce
pt pint
qt quart
ss one half
T temp
tsp teaspoon
dx diagnosis
H/O history of
H and P history and physical
Hx history
MHx medical history
PE or Px physical examination
prog prognosis
Sx symptoms
Tx treatment
BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy
CA cancer
CAD coronary artery disease
CHF congestive heart failure
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CRC colorectal cancer
CVA cerbrolvascular accident
DM diabetes mellitus
Fe or def iron deficiency
GC gonorrhea
GDM gestational diabetes mellitus
HTN hypertension
IBS irritable bowel syndrome
MI myocardial infarction
MS multiple sclerosis
OA osteoarthritis
OM otitis media
PID pelvic inflammatory disease
RA rheumatic arthritis
RF rheumatic fever
STD sexually transmitted disease
TB tuberculosis
URI upper respiratory infection
USI urinary stress incontinence
UTI urinary tract infection
CT, CAT computed axial tomography
CXR chest x-ray
ECG electrocardiogram
Echo echocardiogram
EEG ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM
FOBT fecal occult blood test
IVP intravenous pyelogram
LP lumbar puncture
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
NST nonstress test
PFT pulmonary function test
TRUS transrectal ultrasound
US ultrasound
WNL within normal limits
WO written order
w/o without
wt weight
w/o without
abd abdomen
AD right ear
AS left ear
AU in each ear, both ears
EENT eye,ear,nose,and throat
GI GASTROINTESTINAL
GU GENITOURINARY
L OR LT LEFT
LA LEFT ARM
LL LEFT LEG
LLQ LOWER LEFT QUADRANT
LRQ LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT
LUQ LEFT UPPER QUADRANT
OD RIGHT EYE
OS LEFT EYE
OU IN EACH EYE, BOTH EYES
R OR rt right
RA RIGHT ARM
RL RIGHT LEG
RLQ RIGHT LOWER QUADRANT
RUQ RIGHT UPPER QUADRANT
C CELSIUS
cc cubic centimeter
cm centimeter
dL deciliter
F FAHRENHEIT
g gram
BG blood glucose
Bx biopsy
CBC complete blood count
C and S culture and sensitivity
diff differential
ESR erythocyte sedimentation rate
FBS fasting blood sugar
GCT glucose challenge test
GTT glucose tolerance test
Hct hematocrit
Hgb hemoglobin
PPBS postprandial blood sugar
PSA PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN
PT PROTHROMBIN TIME
RBC red blood cells
RBS random blood sugar
SG SPECIFIC GRAVITY
trig triglycerides
UA URINALYSIS
U/C urine culture
WBC white blood count
Abbreviations
Question Answer
aa of each
Ab abortion
abd abdomen
abs absent
ac before meals
ad lib as desired
admin administer
AM or a.m. before noon
AP Apical pulse
amt amount
approx approx
appt appointment
ASA acetylsalicylic acid (acid)
ASAP As soon as possible
BA Backache
b/c because
BC Birth control
bid twice a day
BM Bowel movement
BP blood pressure
BPM beats per minute
BS blood sugar
BSE breast self-examination
c with
caps capsules
cath catheter, catherize
CC chief complaint
chemo chemotherapy
CMA certified medical assistant
c/o complains of
CS cesarean section
Cx cervix
d day
/d per day
d/c discontinue
D and I dry and intact
dil dilute
disch discharge
DNKA did not keep appointment
DOB date of birth
DOI date of injury
DRE digital rectal examination
DSD dry, sterile dressing
DTaP diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine
D and V diarrhea and vomiting
DVA distance visual acuity
ea each
ED emergency department
EDD expected due date
Fe iron
flex sig flexible sigmoidoscopy
freq frequent
F/U follow up
Fx fracture
GYN gynecology
h or hr hour
H/A headache
HBP high blood pressure
HC head circumference
Hep B hepatitis B vaccine
Hg Mercury
H2o Water
HR heart rate
HRT hormone replacement therapy
hs at bedtime
ht height
ID intradermal
IM intramuscular
IPV inactivated polio vaccine
IV intravenous
lab laboratory
lac laceration
lat lateral
lax laxative
LB lower back
LBP lower back pain
liq liquid
LMP last menstral period
med,meds medication(s)
min minute
MMR measles, mumps, and rubella
mod moderate
N/A not applicable
NB newborn
N/C no complaints
neg negative
NH nursing home
NICU newborn intensive care unit
noct nocturnal
NS normal saline
N and V nausea and vomiting
NVA near visual acuity
NVD NAUSEA, VOMITING, AND DIARRHEA
OB obstretrics
occ occasionally
oint ointment
op operation
OR operating room
OT occupational therapy
OTC over-the-counter
OV office visit
p pulse
Pap Pap test
path pathology
pc after meals
peds pediatrics
PEN penicillin
per by or through
pharm pharmacy
PM or p.m. after noon
PMS premenstrual syndrome
po or PO by mouth
pos positive
postop postoperative (after surgery)
preop preoperative (before surgery)
prep preperation
prn as needed
PT Physical therapy
Pt or pt patient
qd everyday
qh every hour
q(2,3,4)h every (2,3,4) hours
qid four times a day
qn every night
QNS quality not sufficient
qod every other day
QS quality sufficient
quad quadriplegic
R respiration
RE rectal examination
reg regular
rehab rehabilitation
RMA registered medical assistant
Rx perscription
s without
SC or SQ subcutaneous
S/E side effects
sec second
sigmoid sigmoidoscopy
sl slight
sm small
SOB shortness of breath
sol solution
spec specimen
STAT immediately
surg surgery
T temperature
tab, tabs tablet(s)
temp temperature
ther therapy
tid three times a day
TLC tender love car & total lung capcity
TPR temp, pulse and respiration
tr trace
TSE testicular self-examination
vag vagina, vaginal
VE vaginal examination
vit vitamin
VO verbal order
VS vital signs
wk week
kg kilogram
L liter
l length
lb pound
m meter
mcg microgram
mg milligram
ml milliliter
mm millimeter
oz ounce
pt pint
qt quart
ss one half
T temp
tsp teaspoon
dx diagnosis
H/O history of
H and P history and physical
Hx history
MHx medical history
PE or Px physical examination
prog prognosis
Sx symptoms
Tx treatment
BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy
CA cancer
CAD coronary artery disease
CHF congestive heart failure
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CRC colorectal cancer
CVA cerbrolvascular accident
DM diabetes mellitus
Fe or def iron deficiency
GC gonorrhea
GDM gestational diabetes mellitus
HTN hypertension
IBS irritable bowel syndrome
MI myocardial infarction
MS multiple sclerosis
OA osteoarthritis
OM otitis media
PID pelvic inflammatory disease
RA rheumatic arthritis
RF rheumatic fever
STD sexually transmitted disease
TB tuberculosis
URI upper respiratory infection
USI urinary stress incontinence
UTI urinary tract infection
CT, CAT computed axial tomography
CXR chest x-ray
ECG electrocardiogram
Echo echocardiogram
EEG ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM
FOBT fecal occult blood test
IVP intravenous pyelogram
LP lumbar puncture
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
NST nonstress test
PFT pulmonary function test
TRUS transrectal ultrasound
US ultrasound
WNL within normal limits
WO written order
w/o without
wt weight
w/o without
abd abdomen
AD right ear
AS left ear
AU in each ear, both ears
EENT eye,ear,nose,and throat
GI GASTROINTESTINAL
GU GENITOURINARY
L OR LT LEFT
LA LEFT ARM
LL LEFT LEG
LLQ LOWER LEFT QUADRANT
LRQ LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT
LUQ LEFT UPPER QUADRANT
OD RIGHT EYE
OS LEFT EYE
OU IN EACH EYE, BOTH EYES
R OR rt right
RA RIGHT ARM
RL RIGHT LEG
RLQ RIGHT LOWER QUADRANT
RUQ RIGHT UPPER QUADRANT
C CELSIUS
cc cubic centimeter
cm centimeter
dL deciliter
F FAHRENHEIT
g gram
BG blood glucose
Bx biopsy
CBC complete blood count
C and S culture and sensitivity
diff differential
ESR erythocyte sedimentation rate
FBS fasting blood sugar
GCT glucose challenge test
GTT glucose tolerance test
Hct hematocrit
Hgb hemoglobin
PPBS postprandial blood sugar
PSA PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN
PT PROTHROMBIN TIME
RBC red blood cells
RBS random blood sugar
SG SPECIFIC GRAVITY
trig triglycerides
UA URINALYSIS
U/C urine culture
WBC white blood count
Terms Pertaining to the Body-Combining Forms, Suffixes, Prefixes, Terms
Terms definition
abdomin/o abdomen
adip/o fat
anter/o front
bol/o to cast (throw)
cervic/o neck (of the body or of the uterus)
chondr/o cartiladge (type of connective tissue)
chrom/o color
coccyg/o coccyx (tailbone)
crani/o skull
cyt/o cell
dist/o far, distant
dors/o back portion of the body
hist/o tissue
ili/o ilium (part of the pelvic bone)
inguin/o groin
kary/o nucleus
later/o side
lumb/o lower back (side & back between the ribs & the pelvis)
medi/o middle
nucle/o nucleus
pelv/i pelvis
poster/o back, behind
proxim/o nearest
sacr/o sacrum
sarc/o flesh
spin/o spine, backbone
thel/o nipple
thorac/o chest
trache/o trachea, windpipe
umbilic/o navel, umbilicus
ventr/o bellyside of the body
vertebr/o vertebra(e), backbone(s)
viscer/o internal organs
ana- up, apart
cata- down
epi- above
hypo- below
inter- between
meta- change
-eal pertaining to
-iac pertaining to
-ior pertaining to
-ism process, condition
-ose pertaining to, full of
-plasm formation
-somes bodies
-type picture, classification
abdomial pertaininf to the abdomen, stomach
anatomy study of the human body, structures
anterior towards the front, before, ventral
caudal below, tail bone
cephalic above
cranial pertaining to the skull, brain
distal far from, distant
dorsal towards the back
epigastric above the stomach
histology the study of tissue
homeostasis in good health, staying the same
hypochondriac below stomach
iliac inguinal, right & left lower regions
inferior below
inguinal pertaining to the groin, pelvic region
lateral to the side
lumbar lower back
medial toward the middle, close to
metabolism chemical process that occurs in cells
nucleus central, controlling structure in a cell
pelvic bones of the hip region
posterior after, dorsal
proximal near trunk of body, close
spinal pertaining to the spine
superficial on the surface
superior top, above
thoracic pertaining to the chest
umbilical area of the navel
ventral belly side, pertaining to the fron
Terms Pertaining to the Body-Combining Forms, Suffixes, Prefixes, Terms
Terms definition
abdomin/o abdomen
adip/o fat
anter/o front
bol/o to cast (throw)
cervic/o neck (of the body or of the uterus)
chondr/o cartiladge (type of connective tissue)
chrom/o color
coccyg/o coccyx (tailbone)
crani/o skull
cyt/o cell
dist/o far, distant
dors/o back portion of the body
hist/o tissue
ili/o ilium (part of the pelvic bone)
inguin/o groin
kary/o nucleus
later/o side
lumb/o lower back (side & back between the ribs & the pelvis)
medi/o middle
nucle/o nucleus
pelv/i pelvis
poster/o back, behind
proxim/o nearest
sacr/o sacrum
sarc/o flesh
spin/o spine, backbone
thel/o nipple
thorac/o chest
trache/o trachea, windpipe
umbilic/o navel, umbilicus
ventr/o bellyside of the body
vertebr/o vertebra(e), backbone(s)
viscer/o internal organs
ana- up, apart
cata- down
epi- above
hypo- below
inter- between
meta- change
-eal pertaining to
-iac pertaining to
-ior pertaining to
-ism process, condition
-ose pertaining to, full of
-plasm formation
-somes bodies
-type picture, classification
abdomial pertaininf to the abdomen, stomach
anatomy study of the human body, structures
anterior towards the front, before, ventral
caudal below, tail bone
cephalic above
cranial pertaining to the skull, brain
distal far from, distant
dorsal towards the back
epigastric above the stomach
histology the study of tissue
homeostasis in good health, staying the same
hypochondriac below stomach
iliac inguinal, right & left lower regions
inferior below
inguinal pertaining to the groin, pelvic region
lateral to the side
lumbar lower back
medial toward the middle, close to
metabolism chemical process that occurs in cells
nucleus central, controlling structure in a cell
pelvic bones of the hip region
posterior after, dorsal
proximal near trunk of body, close
spinal pertaining to the spine
superficial on the surface
superior top, above
thoracic pertaining to the chest
umbilical area of the navel
ventral belly side, pertaining to the front