148 terms

US History EOCT Review

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House of Burgesses
The first representative assembly in the American Colonies.
Powhatan G
Powerful chief in the area of Jamestown who agreed to supply corn to the Jamestown colony.
Bacon's Rebellion A
A revolt against powerful colonial authority in Jamestown by Nathaniel Bacon and a group of landless frontier settlers that resulted in the burning of Jamestown in 1676
King Philip's War Y
Early, bloody conflict between English colonists and Native Americans.
Salem Witch Trials
Outbreak of witchcraft accusations in a puritan village marked by an atmosphere of fear, hysteria and stress
New England Colonies
Founded by Puritans for religious freedom-Massachusetts, R.I.
Pennsylvania
Founded by William Penn as a Quaker colony
New Amsterdam
Originally founded by the Dutch; renamed New York by England
Rhode Island
Roger Williams founded this colony when he was expelled from Massachusetts for religious disagreements. Supported the separation of church and state and paying the Indians for their land.
Quebec
1st permanent French colony; founded by Samuel de Champlain
Mercantilism
Acquiring wealth to benefit the mother country
Middle Passage
The middle portion of the triangular trade that brought African slaves to the Americas
Great Awakening
A religious revival held in the 1730's and 1740's to motivate the colonial America. Motivational speakers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield helped to bring Americans together.
Benjamin Franklin
American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution. (p. 577)
Transatlantic trade
The exchange of goods, primarily slaves between Africa, America, and Europe.
French and Indian War
War between Britain and France over the Ohio Valley region
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended the F and I war; France gave up Canada and all land East of the Mississippi River
Proclamation of 1763
British law; said colonists could not settle beyond the Appalachians
Stamp Act
British tax on all paper products (documents etc.)
Intolerable Acts
The laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 that closed Boston Harbor, dissolved the Massachusetts assembly, and forced Boston colonists to house British soldiers.
Sons of Liberty
Group of men who were determined to get independence. Sam Adams was the founder.
Thomas Paine
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain.
Declaration of Independence
The document recording the proclamation of the Second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain.
John Locke
Philosopher who believed in natural rights and social contract theory.
Thomas Jefferson
Writer of Declaration of Independence. 3rd president of U.S. who authorized Louisiana Purchase.
George Washington
America's leader during the Revolution; 1st president and warned against the formation of political parties in farewell speech.
Yorktown
Final battle of American Revolution.
Treaty of Paris 1783
Ended American Revolution; America officially gained independence
Articles of Confederation
America's 1st constitution; was too weak because the government had no power to tax, etc.
Federalists
Supporters of a strong central governmentt and rule by the elite; led by Hamilton
Anti-Federalists
Supporters of states' power; farmers; led by Jefferson
Great Compromise
Settled disputes between states with large and small populations; created a bicameral legislature
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the Constitution; emphasizes personal freedoms
Shays' Rebellion
Protest of farmers who couldn't pay their war debts which caused them to lose their farms and revealed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
Whiskey Rebellion
Rebellion of farmers protesting tax on whiskey
Checks and Balances
System where 1 branch can't dominate another
Separation of Powers
Legislative (Congress), Executive (President), Judicial (Courts)
The Federalistm Papers
Written by Hamilton, Madison and Jay; encouraged ratification of the Constitution
Northwest Ordinance
Encouraged Westward expansion and creation of new states
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Explored the Louisisana Purchase.
War of 1812
A war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Industrial Revolution
The transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
Eli Whitney
Inventor of cotton gin and interchangeable parts
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the United States was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A prominent advocate of women's rights, Stanton organized the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention with Lucretia Mott
Seneca Falls Convention
America's 1st women's rights convention
Nat Turner
Led a revolt in Virginia 1831, killed 60 people(mostly women and children). This scared the Southerners because it was the first really violent action of the slaves. As a result slave codes were made stricter.
William Lloyd Garrison
Leading white abolitionist, created abolitionist newspaper "Liberator"
Frederick Douglas
Ex-slave abolitionist; created "North Star" abolitionist paper
Missouri Compromise
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
Wilmot Proviso
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico
Mexican War
War declared in 1846 after Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande into Texas. Was ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which gave the U.S. Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million to Mexico
Compromise of 1850
Henry Clay's proposed agreement that allowed California to enter the Union as a free state and divided the rest of the Mexican Cession into two territories where slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty. Also made the Fugitive Slave Act stronger.
John Brown
Abolitionist who led a slave raid on Harper's Ferry; died a martyr
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Abraham Lincoln
US president during Civil War
Gettysburg Address
A 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
Vicksburg
Battle that lead to the Union's control of the Mississippi River
Gettysburg
The most violent battle of the American Civil War and is frequently cited as the war's turning point, fought from July 1 - July 3, 1863.
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln's law that freed all slaves in Confederate states
North's economy
Based on factories; industrialism
South's economy
Based on agriculture; slaves
Robert E. Lee
Confederate (Southern) General
U.S. Grant
Union (Northern) General
Dred Scott Case
Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south
Presidential Reconstruction
Lincoln's plan to rebuild the South after the Civil War. His basic policy was to avoid punishment of the South because he wanted to make sure that he could bring the South back into the Union.
Radical Republican Reconstruction
Congress' reconstruction plan. It was deemed to be too harsh on the South. It wanted to allow the newly freed slaves to vote, keep the Democrats from gaining power in the South, and make the Republican Party a strong party in the South.
Freedman's Bureau
The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.
13th Amendment
Outlawed slavery
14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
John D. Rockefeller
Founder of Standard Oil
Andrew Carnegie
Founder of Carnegie Steel
Thomas Edison
America's greatest inventor-light bulb, phonograph, motion picture
Robber Baron
an American capitalist who acquired a fortune in the late nineteenth century by ruthless means.
Chinese
Immigrants who worked on railroads on the west coast
Trust
a combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition
Ellis Island
an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States
Wounded Knee
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
Sitting Bull
Leader of Dakota Sioux Indians; defeated Custer at Little Bighorn
Samuel Gompers
Labor leader; head of AFL (American Federation of Labor)
Upton Sinclair
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago.
Muckrakers
Journalists who exposed corruption in business and government
Jane Addams
Reformer who established Hull House for the poor
Jim Crow laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
Plessy v Ferguson
Court case that established "separate but equal"
Theodore Roosevelt
26th President of the United States, hero of the Spanish-American War; Panama Canal was built during his administration; said 'Speak softly but carry a big stick'
Spanish-American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Panama Canal
Allowed ships to pass from Atlantic to Pacific oceans, a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States
Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Chinese Exclusion Act
Passed in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease.
Neutrality
US policy at outbreak of WW1
Fourteen Points
Wilson's plan for international peace after WWI
Great Migration
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
18th Amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
19th Amendment
Gave women the right to vote (suffrage)
Red Scare
Fear of communism in America
Henry Ford
Inventor of Model T automobile and mass production/assembly line
Harlem Renaissance
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
Dust Bowl
term used for the central and southern great plains during the 1930s when the region suffered from drought and dust storms
Hoovervilles
Makeshift shacks where those suffering from the depression lived
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Panic of 1929
New Deal
term used to describe president franklin roosevelt's relief, recovery, and reform programs designed to combat the Great Depression
TVA
(Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.
Social Security Act
One of the most important features of the Second New Deal established a retirement for persons over 65 funded by a tax on wages paid equally by employee and employer.
Wagner Act
Part of "Second" New Deal Programs (1935-1938), collective bargaining rights, closed shops permitted (where workers must join unions), outlawed anti-union tactics
Neutrality Act
series of laws passed by Congress in 1935 that banned arms sales or loans to countries at war
Eleanor Roosevelt
wife of Franklin Roosevelt and a strong advocate of human rights (1884-1962)
Court Packing plan
FDR's failed plan to pack the court with hand picked judges
A. Philip Randolph
Proposed to march on Washington for civil rights for blacks in US
Pearl Harbor
December 7, 1941; Japanese attack on America; reason for US entry into WWII
Lend-Lease Program
US policy to lend weapons to Allied nations during WWII
Internment camps
Detention centers where more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were relocated during World War II by order of the President.
Battle of Midway
Turning point battle in the Pacific against Japan, 1942 World War II battle between the United States and Japan, a turning point in the war in the Pacific
D-Day
Largest Allied invasion force in history; goal to regain France
Manhattan Project
Code-name of atomic bomb project
Marshall Plan
Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Korean War
North vs. South Korea; ended in a stalemate at the 38th parallel
Joseph McCarthy
accused many innocent Americans, US senator; claimed that their were Soviet spies and Communists within the government but had no evidence; discredited by the US senate
Bay of Pigs
An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.
Cuban Missile Crisis
the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
Vietnam War
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
Tet Offensive
a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities in early 1968.
Containment
US policy to stop the spread of communism
Baby Boom
Huge growth of population after WWII
Levittown
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
Interstate Highway Act
National network of highways connecting US cities
Sputnik
First satellite in space launched by Russia
Brown v Board
Outlawed segregation in schools; overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson
Civil Rights Act 1964
Outlawed discrimination based on race, gender, religion
Voting Rights Act 1965
Outlawed literacy tests for voting
Harry Truman
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb
Great Society
LBJ's program to end poverty/discrimination-(Medicare, Welfare, Civil Rights Act 1964)
SCLC
An organization formed in 1957 by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and other leaders to work for civil rights through nonviolent means
Rachel Carson
Environmentalist who wrote "Silent Spring" criticizing pesticides/pollution
Cesar Chavez
Co-founder of the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee, a labor union formed to seek higher wages and better working conditions for Mexican-American farm workers in California
Richard Nixon
President of the United States from 1969 to 1974 who followed a foreign policy marked by détente with the Soviet Union and by the opening of diplomatic relations with China. In the face of likely impeachment for the Watergate scandal, he resigned.
NOW
This organization was formed in 1966 to pursue feminist goals such as better childcare facilities, improved educational opportunities, and an end to job discrimination
Roe v Wade
Supreme Court decision which gave women the right to choose if they want an abortion
Camp David Accords
A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel
Iran Hostage Crisis
incident in which Iranian radicals, with government support, seized 52 Americans from the US embassy and held them for 444 days; ostensibly demanding the return of the deposed Shah to stand trial, the fundamentalist clerics behind the seizure also hoped to punish the United States for other perceived past wrongs.
Reaganomics
Reagan's economic program which cut taxes and government regulation in order to increase productivity, nd eventully increase tax revenue as cash flowed in the economy
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
Bill Clinton
42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached
2000 election
Al Gore vs. George W. Bush, votes = too close to call, disputes over recounts occurred, Republicans sued to stop recounts. Court voted 5 to 4 to stop recounts, awarding Florida electoral votes and Presidency to Bush
9/11
A series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001.