Herbs, spices, and flavorings that create a savory aroma, such as bouquet garni and sachet d'epices.
au jus (oh ZHEW):
Meat served with its own juice. Think of the French Dip Sandwich. That little cup of brown, tasty liquid is jus.
A grand sauce made from milk and white roux.
beurre manié (byurr man-YAY):
A thickener made of equal parts flour and soft, whole butter.
A cream soup made from puréed shellfish shells, such as lobster, shrimp, or crab.
The liquid that results from simmering meat or vegetables; also referred to as broth.
bouquet garni (boo-KAY gahr-NEE):
French for "bag of herbs"; a bundle of fresh herbs, such as thyme, parsley stems, and a bay leaf tied together.
brown or espagnole sauce (ess-spah- NYOL):
A grand sauce made from brown stock and brown roux.
An amber liquid produced by simmering poultry, beef, veal, or game bones, after these bones have been browned.
A pierced metal cone-shaped strainer; use it to strain soups, stocks, and other liquids to remove all solid ingredients.
A very fine China cap made of metal mesh that strains out very small solid ingredients.
The liquid that remains after the removal of the raft when making consommé.
Flavored stocks, broths, and consommés.
A mixture of raw butter and various flavoring ingredients, such as herbs, nuts, citrus zest, shallots, ginger, and vegetables.
A coarsely chopped mixture. Tomato concassé is created by adding tomatoes, garlic, and seasonings to vegetable stock to flavor or darken the stock, but tomatoes must be strained with a cheesecloth or filter so that no seeds or skins get into the stock.
A thick, puréed sauce, such as tomato coulis.
court bouillon (court boo-YON):
An aromatic vegetable broth, used for poaching fish or vegetables.
The process of removing fat that has cooled and hardened from the surface of stock.
demi-glace (deh-mee glahs):
A rich brown sauce traditionally made by combining equal parts espagnole sauce and veal stock.
Microorganisms on food that cause illness. These need time and moisture to grow, but they won't grow when the temperature of the food is colder than 41°F or hotter than 135°F.
A highly flavored stock made with fish bones; fish stock is very similar to fumet.
A reduced stock with a jellylike consistency, made from brown stock, chicken stock, or fish stock; it is sometimes referred to as "glaze."
Five classical sauces that are the basis for most other sauces. These are sometimes called "mother sauces."
A rich, emulsified grand sauce made from butter, egg yolks, lemon juice, and cayenne pepper.
A rich, lightly reduced stock used as a sauce for roasted meat.
A sauce made from the juices of cooked meat and brown stock.
A mixture of egg yolks and heavy cream, often used to finish some sauces, such as Allemande sauce.
maître d'hôtel butter (MAY-tra doe-TEL):
A softened butter that is flavored with lemon juice and chopped parsley. It is often used to garnish grilled meat or fish.
A French word that refers to the mixture of coarsely chopped onions, carrots, and celery. This mixture provides a flavor base for stock.
A "burnt onion." Cut an onion half across its hemisphere and then char the flat part either on a flattop or in a dry (fat-free) pan.
When making consommé, the raft is the floating layer of egg whites, meat and vegetable solids, and fats.
A weak stock made from bones that have already been used in another preparation, sometimes used to replace water as the liquid used in a stock; remouillage is the French word for "rewetting."
A thickener made of equal parts cooked flour and a fat, such as clarified butter, oil, or shortening.
sachet d'épices (sah-SHAY day-PEESE):
Similar to bouquet garni, except it really is a bag of herbs and spices.
A cold mixture of fresh herbs, spices, fruits, and/or vegetables.
A liquid or semisolid product that is used in preparing other food items.
A cook who specializes in making sauces.
Cornstarch mixed with a cold liquid, which can be used instead of roux.
A flavorful liquid made by gently simmering bones and/or vegetables.
To slowly mix a little bit of hot sauce with eggs or cream to raise the temperature slowly and prevent the mixture from cooking or curdling.
Cream and purée soups.
A grand sauce made from a stock and tomatoes (roux is optional).
Usually made from mirepoix, leeks, and turnips.
A grand sauce made from veal, chicken, or fish stock and a white or blond roux.
A clear, pale liquid made by simmering poultry, beef, or fish bones.
An easy way to strain sauce. In this method, place a clean cheesecloth over a bowl and pour the sauce through the cheesecloth into the bowl. The cloth is then twisted at either end to squeeze out the strained sauce. The cheesecloth catches the unwanted lumps of roux, or herbs, spices, and other seasonings.