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Politics of the United States
Chapter 5 Section 2
Terms in this set (37)
Driven by Alexander Hamilton, Federalists believed in a stronger centralized government and that the states were essentially part of one union that could enact laws upon all states. More likely the party of the wealthy.
Driven by Thomas Jefferson, they believed in strong states rights and a very minimalist federal government. More likely the party of the common people, like people of agriculture. Eventually the less-popular Federalists lost their power and for a period of time America had a one-party system within the Anti-Federalist party called the Democrat Republicans (democrats).
Era of Democrats, 1800-1860 (1st era)
Thomas Jefferson is elected president, ushering in an era of Democratic domination that lasted until Civil War.
National Republic (Whigs)
Political party formed to go against Andrew Jackson and the democrats; broke off from the Democratic party; led by Clay and Webster; consisted of east bankers, merchants, and industrialists; eventually they fell apart. They can be viewed as "frustrated federalists" - they want the merchants, the bankers, etc. Large plantation owners would support whigs.
Drew many whigs and antislavery Democrats. Only party in American history to make the jump from third party to major party.
Era of the Republicans, 1860-1932 (2nd era)
The election of Abraham Lincoln and the start of Civil War mark the beginning of 75 years of Republican supremacy.
Election of 1896
William McKinley (Republican) vs. William Jennings Bryan (Democrat). McKinley won, so Republicans regained presidency. Republican dominated era. However Bryan wanted to expand economic interests of the little guy and away from divisions of sectionalism. Populist party supported Bryan and the farmers while Republicans were focusing on industry. Eventually the Democrats come back and help the poor (great depression).
Era of 1912 (during Republican era) - Former president that left the Republicans to join his "Bull Moose" Progressive Party. Traditional Republican support was divided between Roosevelt (1901-1913) and Taft (1909-1913).
Return of the Democrats, 1932-1968 (3rd era)
The Great Depression brings about a shift in the role of government. and, led by FDR, a return of the democrats to power.
Era of Divided Government, 1968-Today (4th era)
From this election on, one of the major parties occupies the White House and the other party holds a majority of the seats in one or both houses of Congress.
loyalty to the interests of one's own region or section of the country, rather than to the country as a whole.
He opposed political parties. He called them "baneful" (troubling) effects of the spirit of party. Washington's vision about conflicts in parties came true.
Last important leader of federalists. 2nd president of United States. His federalist party gets destroyed after he loses the 1800 election.
Starts off as a Federalist but Jefferson wins him over and becomes an anti-federalist. Partners with Jefferson and helps him defeat Adams in the 1800 election. Democratic Republican party.
Anti-Federalists -->Democratic Republicans -->Democrats
First president elected from new Democratic Party. For small people, small farmers.
a practice in which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its supporters, friends and relatives as a reward for working toward victory
A general and national hero in the United States Army from the time of the Mexican-American War and the the War of 1812, was elected the 12th U.S. President as a whig, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850.
William Henry Harrison
American military officer (war hero like Taylor) and politician (Whig), was the ninth President of the United States (1841), the oldest President to be elected at the time. On his 32nd day, he became the first to die in office, serving the shortest tenure in U.S. Presidential history.
1st candidate nominated for the Republican party.
First Republican to be elected as president.
The states of the southern U.S. that traditionally supported the Democratic Party after the Civil War. Republican congress tried to force the southern democrats to recognize the blacks, and the reaction to that was KKK and other bad things.
Jim Crow Laws
Radical segregation laws enacted after the reconstruction period in the South (1866-1920). By keeping blacks down and not vote for Republicans, Democrats could be in power. During era of Republicans.
After a policy of neutrality at the outbreak of World War I, Wilson led America into war in order to "make the world safe for democracy." Wilson was able to capture the presidency but the Democratic success during 1912 and 1916 only lasted a short time during the Republican era (he was an exception).
Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Hebert Hoover
Era of Republicans --> Republican president (1921-1923); Republican president (1923-1929); Republican president (1929-1933, beginning of Great Depression). "Hooverville" was a shanty town built by homeless people during the Great Depression named after Herbert Hoover blaming him. Republicans didn't focus on the little guy. This opens the door for FDR, where Democrats eventually become dominant again.
FDR and "New Deal"
The Great Depression brings about a shift in the role of government. FDR's promises of a "New Deal" (economic and social welfare programs) gave the Democrats a return to power. African Americans supported FDR.
Truman was FDR's vice president (democrat). JFK was a big democrat. Ike is in the middle because he was a Republican and a war hero. This was a Democratic dominant era (Ike is the exception).
Lyndon B. Johnson and the Vietnam War
Elected Vice President as John F. Kennedy's running mate. When Kennedy was assassinated, Johnson (Democrat) was sworn in as the 36th United States President. He escalated the Vietnam War and was the last democratic standing before the divided government era.
Republican president (1969-1974). Most respected president internationally. He became the only President to ever resign the office, as a result of the Watergate scandal.
Era of Divided Government. Came from the South. For segregation. Solid South was Democratic. Wallace forms an independent party on the basis of segregation and takes a lot of white Democrats with him. 1968.
Watergate and Gerald Ford
Ford took office on August 9, 1974, following the resignation of President Richard Nixon, who left the White House in disgrace over the Watergate scandal. A longtime Republican congressman from Michigan, Ford had been appointed vice president less than a year earlier by President Nixon. He is credited with helping to restore public confidence in government after the disillusionment of the Watergate era. Ford pardons Nixon.
What factors contributed to Jimmy Carter's defeat in the 1980 election?
Carter was a democrat (1977 to 1981). During that time the economy was bad and the Iranian hostage crisis led to a defeat for Jimmy Carter.
Republican president after Carter (1981 to 1989). Just a few hours after Ronald Reagan delivered his inaugural address, the remaining hostages were released. They had been in captivity for 444 days.
George H.W. Bush; Bill Clinton; Ross Perot
Reagan's vice president (republican). He raised taxes and said he wouldn't; Bush loses to Clinton (democrat). 2 full terms. Clinton spent a lot of money; Ross was a presidential candidate that came from a Reformed Independent party - stop government spending, which helped Republicans win on that issue, so W. Bush comes along and wins against Gore.
W. Bush and Al Gore
W. Bush comes along and wins against Gore (democrat), who won popular vote and yet failed to win presidency. Bush has two terms.
Nader's Green Party (2000 election)
Ralph Nader ran in the 2000 presidential election as the nominee of the green party, which focused on issues like the environment.
The tendency for a popular political party leader to attract votes for other candidates of the same party in an election.
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United States Government: Our Democracy
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