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final vocab list

everything important
STUDY
PLAY
information processing cycle
series of input, process, output, storage and communication activities
data
ollection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers, images, audio, and video
hardware
A computer contains many electric, electronic, and mechanical components
Computer Literacy
as computers become more part of everyday life, it is more vital to success
Supercomputers
largest and most expensive types of computers
system unit
case that contains electronic components of the computer that are used to process data.
Computers process
data into information
program
set of step-by-step instructions that tell the computer how to do something
URL
Every web page has a unique address
Domain
text version of an IP address
ARPANET
The Internet has its roots in ____, a network that became functional in 1969, linking scientific and academic researchers across the United States.
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
oversees research and sets standards and guidelines for many areas of the Internet.
Social Networking
MySpace and Facebook are the two most popular _________ sites.
Top Level Domain
A web site's _______ gives the reader an idea as to the purpose of the site even without knowing anything about it initially.
ISP
There are both regional and national ______, which are more basic but more functional than services like America Online.
IP address
A(n) ____ address is a number that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to the Internet.
subject
On the Web, a(n) ____ directory classifies Web pages in an organized set of categories, such as sports or shopping, and related subcategories.
Powerpoint
Widely used Web browsers for personal computers include all of the following EXCEPT
Printer and monitor
All of the following are widely used input devices EXCEPT the _____.
Application Software
____ software consists of programs designed to make users more productive and/or assist them with personal tasks, and include Web browser, word processing software, and spreadsheet software.
scanner
Each of the following is a commonly used output device EXCEPT _____.
Custom Software
____ performs functions specific to a business or industry.
Machine Cycle
Together, four operations (fetching, decoding, executing, and storing) comprise a(n) ____ cycle.
Software Suites
Two of the more commonly used ____ are Microsoft Office and Sun StarOffice.
Window
A(n) ____ is a rectangular area of the screen that displays data and information.
Freeware
____ is copyrighted software provided at no cost to a user by an individual or a company.
Unicode
____ is a coding scheme capable of representing almost all of the world's current written languages, as well as classic and historical languages.
Nonvolatile
____ memory does not lose its contents when power is removed from the computer.
Binary code
The ____ system is a number system that has just two unique digits, 0 and 1, called bits.
Shareware
____ is copyrighted software that is distributed at no cost for a trial period.
heat pipe
Because a heat sink consumes a lot of space, a smaller device called a heat ____ cools processors in notebook computers.
Public-domain software
____ is free software, but it has been donated for public use and has no copyright restrictions.
Pipelining
With ____, the processor begins fetching a second instruction before it completes the machine cycle for the first instruction.
RAM
____ is the most common type of volatile memory.
dialog box
A ____ is a special window that provides information, presents available options, or requests a response.
Packaged Software
____ is mass-produced, copyrighted retail software that meets the needs of a variety of users, not just a single user or company.
byte
A(n) ____ is the basic storage unit in memory and is made up of eight binary digits.
Business Software
____ includes programs such as word processing, spreadsheet, database, presentation graphics, personal information manager software, PDA business software, software suites, accounting, and project management.
ASCII
____ is the most widely used coding scheme used to represent data most appropriate for the English language.
Icon
A(n) ____ is a small image displayed on the screen that represents a program, a document, or some other object.
input
What is any data and instructions entered into the memory of a computer?
Input device
What is a hardware component that allows users to enter data and instructions into a computer?
Ergonomics
What is the science of incorporating comfort, efficiency, and safety into the design of the workplace?
Video Conference
What is is a meeting between two or more geographically separated people?
Turnaround document
What is a document, like a bill statement, you return to the company that creates and sends it?
Optical Mark Recognition (OMR)
What kind of technology reads hand-drawn marks such as small circles or rectangles? (Ex: Scantron)
RFID
What input technology uses radio signals to communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object?
magnetic ink recognition
What type of devices read text printed with magnetized ink and are used by the banking industry?
Biometrics
What input technology authenticates a person's identity by verifying a personal characteristic?
Resolution
What term refers to the number of horizontal and vertical pictures in a display device?
Output
What is data that has been processed into a useful form?
Output device
What is any type of hardware component that conveys information to one or more people?
Graphics Processing Unit
What kind of hardware controls the manipulation and display of graphics on a display device?
Hard Copy
What is another name for printed information?
Nonimpact
What kind of printer forms characters and graphics on a piece of paper without actually striking the paper?
Multifunction Peripheral
What is a single device that prints, scans, copies, and in some cases, faxes?
Plotters
What printers are used to produce high-quality drawings?
data projector
What is a device that takes the text and images displaying on a computer screen and projects them on a larger screen?
Interactive Whiteboard
What is a touch-sensitive device, resembling a dry-erase board, that displays the image on a connected computer screen?
Tactile
What kind of output provides the user with a physical response from the device?
Storage Medium
What is the physical material on which a computer keeps data, instructions and information?
Writing
What is the process of transferring items from memory to a storage medium?
Hard disk
What kind of device contains multiple inflexible platters, usually metal, that use magnetic particles to store data, instructions and information?
formatting
What is the process of dividing a disk into tracks and sectors so data and information can be stored on it?
Head Crash
What is the error that occurs when a read/write head touches the surface of a disk and causes irreparable damage?
Cloud Storage
What is an Internet service that provides storage to computer users to access from anywhere in the world with Internet access?
Optical Disk
CDs and DVDs are forms of what kind of media?
sequential access
Magnetic tape storage uses _____________, which means data and information is stored and accessed in chronological order.
Smart Card
What stores data on a thin microprocessor embedded in a card?
Microfilm
According to manufacturers, which type of media has the longest potential life expectancy?
System
____ software, such as operating systems and utility programs, consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of a computer and its devices.
operating systems and utility programs
Two types of system software are ____.
the same on multiple operating systems
A cross-platform program is one that runs ____.
Booting
____ is the process of starting or restarting a computer.
Resident
The kernel is memory ____, which means it remains in memory while the computer is running.
Plug and play
____ means the operating system automatically configures new devices as users install them.
Proprietary
____ software is privately owned software and limited to a specific vendor or computer model.
Uninstaller
A(n) ____ is a utility that removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files.
Firewall
A personal ____ is a utility that detects and protects a computer from unauthorized intrusions.
Virus
The term, computer ____, describes a potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the user's knowledge or permission.