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121 terms

Final Personal and Family Living Test

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no fault divorce
a divorce in which neither spouse blames the other for the breakdown of the marriage
correlates of divorce
certain social and socioeconomic characteristics that affect the longevity of a marriage and the probability that a marriage will end in divorce
age at marriage, premarital pregnancy, parental separation, premarital cohabitation
what are the predictors of divorce?
maturity effect
young teenagers often have unrealistic expectations about marriage, and they are also more likely than those in their 20s to misjudge their mate's qualities and characteristics
destabilizing effect
a factor that disrupts the stability of a marital relationship
socialization hypothesis
puts forward the notion that because children of divorce have less experience with successful marital role models, their inability to adequetely cope with the difficulties of marital living puts them at greater risk for divorce
intergenerational transmission
those who experience the end of their parents' marriage are more likely to divorce than those whose parents do not divorce
process of relationship decline
Steven Duck's model of relationship deterioration emphasizes both intrapersonal dynamics and interpersonal dynamics
de-escalation of intimacy
decline in intimacy
dyadic breakdown
first phase of duck's breakdown in couple's relationship, refers to the breakdown of the couple's established relational patterns
intrapsychic phase
second phase of duck's breakdown in couple's relationship, it can be called individual cognition, refers to the point at which couples begin to focus on those aspects of the relationship with which they are dissatisfied or disappointed, feelings are rarel mutual
dyadic phase
third phase of duck's breakdown in couple's relationship, occurs when couples discuss their dissatisfaction with their marriage and attempt to find either a resolution or decide to end the relationship
social phase
fourth phase of duck's breakdown in couple's relationship, refers to this transition as family metacognition, the spouses begin to openly share with others the problems in their marriage and the possibility that it may come to an end
grave dressing
fifth and final phase of duck's breakdown in couple's relationship, the couple must come to terms with the breakup of the marriage
emotional divorce
following the decision during the intrapsychic or individual cognition phase, and the announcement during the social phase or the family metacognition phase, at some point the couple decides to separate
separation period
a time marked by a disruption in the norms of family relationships
normlessness
norms of family relationships that are disrupted
disorderly separation
characterized by its abruptness and is usually not the result of careful consideration
orderly separation
putting the family first and taking into consideration what the divorce should look like and plan it out more than disorderly separation
family law
establishes policies and regulations to ensure that married or divorced couples fulfill their obligations to each other and their children
community property settlement
current and future earnings, current standard of living, individual contributions to the marriage, the length of the marriage, age and health
custody
refers to who is responsible for the children's financial, physical, and emotional well-being
legal custody
refers to which parent has the right to make decisions about how the child is reared, such as decisions concerning education or religion
shared legal custody
both parents have an equal say in the child's upbringing
joint custody
parents share the decision making on behalf of their children
3 types of joint custody
joint legal custody, joing physical custody, joint legal and physical custody
physical custody
a parent is granted the legal right to have the child live primarily with him or her, making this parent the custodial parent
noncustodial parent
parent that is granted the right to have child visitations on a schedule determined by the parents or by the courts if the co-parents cannot agree
sole custody
one parent is the primary parent legally, physically, or both
divorce mediation
a process that helps ex-spouses resolve child support, child custody, and property settlements for themselves and for their children, rather than just having a judge determine these issues for them
divorce mediator
an objective third party to the divorce, the divorcing couple determines the terms of their divorce settlement
transissions associated with divorce
the decision, the announcement, the separation, the formal divorce
binuclear family
refers to the separate, distinct households that form after marital separation or divorce
five former spouse relationship styles
perfect pals, cooperative colleagues, angry associates, fiery foes, dissolved duos
primary divorce stressors
such as custody arrangements, visitation, and child support, they are demanding and that they exert a number of strains on the entire family
secondary divorce stressors
things that occur following the divorce
perfect pals
divorced partners that remain friends after they divorce
cooperative colleagues
able to cooperate as parents, but they do not feel that they are friends
angry associates
effective co-parenting is not a goal of these divorced parents; children are usually caught in the middle
fiery foes
incapable of co-parenting, anger is so intense that they will not allow the other to parent
dissolved duos
these couples break off all contact with one another after the divorce, in some cases one partner literally disappears and leaves the other with the children
externalize difficulties
children demonstrate this through their behavior when they grapple with the inner turmoil, confusion, anger, and hurt they feel in the aftermath of their parents divorce
acting out
children and adolescents externalize their feelings about the divorce, typically through aggressive misbehaviors, noncompliance, disobedience, delinquency, increased absenses from school, and increased aggressiveness
internalizing difficulties
results in emotional problems such as worry, feelings of unhappiness, anxiety, depression, distress, guilt, and poor self-concept
early remarriage
refers to the early stages of the new relationship, and brings with it not only the development difficulties of a traditional marriage, but also carries with it difficulties unique to stepfamilies
stepfamily
when one or both of the married partners bring children from a previous relationship into the new marital relationship
middle remarriage
takes most families about 3 to 5 years to complete, the family becomes a more cohesive system and functions less along strictly biological lines
late remarriage
approximately 6 to 10 years after the remarriage, the family's boundaries and roles are restructured to the point where there is a greater deal of "authenticity" in interactions and shared intimacy within the family system
blended families
when two family systems join together
biological mother/stepfather
the household comprises the mother's biological children and her stepchildren
biological father/stepmother
the household comprises the father's biological children and his stepchildren
complex stepfamily
both partners have children from previous relationships or marriage, although the children may reside in different households
joint biological stepfamily
the couple has at least one biological child that is the product of both married parents, and at least one biological child of either parent
challenges of a stepfamily
financial difficulties, adjusting to new parenting roles, establishing discipline, bonding as a couple, grieving past losses, loss of power and control, guilt, loyalty conflicts, anger
normative
expected changes that take place throughout the family life cycle
non-normative
things we cannot predict or anticipate or things that are not commonly experienced by most families
stressor
can be either positive stress or negative stress
acute
stressor can last a relatively short period of time
chronic
stressor is usually longer in duration
family crisis
stress in the family
general adaptation syndrome
3 stages, describes the physiological responses to eustress and distress
alarm reaction
first stage of stress response, brain perceives the stressor and immediately signals the body to deal with it by neurological and physiological means, our inborn fight or flight tendency the mind and the body is upset
stage of resistance
second stage of stress response, the body continues to battle the stressor and remains in a continued state of elevated arousal
exhaustion
third stage of stress response, the body has depleted every resource it has; often resulting in long-term illness
life change event
typically an event that is forever life altering and requires significant social and psychological adjustment
transactional model of stress
also called interactional model of stress, the impact of the stressor is wholly dependent on our perception and appraisal of the stressor
external locus of control
the perceptio that we cannot control what happens in some aspects of our lives
internal locus of control
the perception that we are in control of our destiny
problem management
strategies that are aimed at directly attacking the stressor or changing the stressor
emotional regulation
strategies that help individuals and families change their perception, interpretation, and the meaning of the stressor
meaning-based coping
strategies which are those coping techniques that produce positive emotions
four categories of family stress
dismemberment, demoralization, accession, demoralization plus dimemberment or accession
ABC-X Family Crisis Model
still considered a major contribution to the area of family stress and family vulnerability research
A factor
the event that initially causes the stress
B factor
refers to the number of family resources that will help the family meet the demands of the stressor or crisis
C factor
refers to the definition the family assigns to the change, transition, stressor, or disruption
X factor
can be thought of as the end product of the initiating event, the family's resources to cope with it, and the meaning they assign to it, the combination of the A, B, and C factors
Doube ABC Model
understanding the effects of the accumulation, or pile-up, of stressors and strains and how families adapt to them
family coping skills
coping skills that families tend to use in times of change and crisis
appraisal-focused coping
families try to understand why the crisis occurred and to find meaning in the circumstances that caused the crisis
cognitive redefinition
occurs when families attempt to reframe the life event or stressor in ways that are more favorable
family resilience
refers to a family's ability to function in a healthy fashion during times of change, stress, adversity, crisis, and transition
cognitive avoidance
(denial) an attempt to deny the seriousness of the situation
problem focused coping
a strategy that allows the family to confront the reality of the crisis head on by seeking and obtaining information about the crisis
emotional focused coping
skills or capacities to maintain hope
progressive desensitization
where family members gradually allow themselves increasing exposure to the varying aspects of the stressor
emotional discharge
another coping skill that includes venting
resigned acceptance
occurs when the family ultimately accepts the situation and recognizes that nothing will change the course their family life has taken
gerontologists
scientists who study aging
lifespan perspective
emphasizes that from the cradle to the grave human beings are in a constant, continuous state of growth-motion
nature-nurture debate
an ongoing controversy as to if the influences of aging determined by nature or by nurture
primary aging
refers to the basic biological processes that are genetically programmed and that take place with the passage of time
Hayflick limit
a time limit that accounts for the aging process and life expectancy
secondary aging
physiological declines that are the result of environmental and behavioral influences that significantly impact how we age
ageism
refers to the stereotypical attitudes people hold about the aging and the elderly
ageist
people who have a fixed and negavtive mindset about older people
intergenerational ties
refer to the relationships between family members across multiple generations and these relationships are indeed important to the aging population
fictive kin
people who are not biologically related to someone but who fulfill a family role
empty nest
the home with no child
four primary factors influence intimacy between older adults and their adult children
gender, geographic distance, parent's marital status, culture
formal grandparenting
grandparents see their role along common, traditional lines
companionate relationship
grandparents enjoy warm, loving, and nurturing relationships with their grandchildren, but are happy to send them home at the end of the day
fun seeker
grandparents that have a relationship with their grandchildren that is characterized by an informal, spontaneous, playfulness
remote relationship
grandparents are only involved on occasional holidays or birthdays
involved relationship
grandparents take the role of the parent
dispenser of wisdom
grandparents offer information and advice to their grandchildren often whether it is asked for or not
sandwich generation
being in the middle of two generations--parents and children
death anxiety
refers to the tension, feelings of distress, and apprehension associated with discussions and thoughts of death
lingering trajectory
when the transition from life to death takes an extended period of time, like cancer
expected quick trajectory
typically associated with an acute crisis or illness, such as a heart attack or vehicle accident
unexpected quick trajectory
has the elements of time pressure and surprise
mourning
refers to the culturally prescribed expressions of the thoughts and feelings of a bereaved person, someone who suffers the loss of a loved one
bereaved person
someone who suffers the loss of a loved one
bereavement
refers to a person's specific, unique reactions following the news that a loved one has died
grief
a response to the painful, forcible separation that takes place when we are faced with death
more frequently
in comparison to couples who do not live together before marriage, people who participate in premarital cohabitation, which allows the couple to rehearse marital roles, divorce...
dyadic breakdown
during this first phase of decline in a couple's relationship, couples cannot identify precisely what is wrong with the relationship, yet they begin to sense that something is wrong
alimony
_____, today more commonly referred to as spousal support, is a monetary payment, typically paid monthly, that one spouse pays to the other spouse during and after the divorce proceedings
physical
when a parent is granted _____ custody, he or she is granted the legal right to have the child live primarily with him or her, making this parent the custodial parent
crude divorce rate
the _____ is the number of divorces that occur per 1,000 population
divorce mediation
______ is a process that helps ex-spouses resolve child support, child custody, and property settlements for themselves and for their children, rather than having a judge determine these issues for them