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Combination of terms

________s, also known as Paraffins, are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon and hydrogen linked together exclusively by single bonds.


A ________, olefin, or olefine is an unsaturated chemical compound containing at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond.


A ________ is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group


A ________ is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group.


________ in chemistry stands for a molecule consisting of an oxygen atom and a hydrogen atom connected by a covalent bond. When the oxygen atom is linked to a larger molecule the hydroxyl group is a functional group.


________ is the substituent form of the alkane propane.


________ is a four-carbon alkyl substituent derived from either of the two isomers of the alkane called butane.


A ________ is an organic compound containing a terminal carbonyl group.


Traditionally known as acetylenes or the acetylene series, the ________s are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms.


________ acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group.


________ involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms within molecules.


The term ________ is used to describe an object that is non-superimposable on its mirror image.


________-trans isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism describing the orientation of functional groups typically around double bonds which cannot rotate.


________ effects arise from the fact that if atoms are brought too close together, there is an associated cost in energy due to overlapping electron clouds.


________s are stereoisomers that are nonsuperimposable complete mirror images of each other.


A ________ mixture is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.


________s are stereoisomers that are not enantiomers.


Optical rotation or optical ________ is the rotation of linearly polarized light as it travels through certain materials.


A ________ compound is a chemical compound with molecules that contain 2 or more stereocenters but which is optically achiral because it contains an internal plane of symmetry.


A ________ projection visualizes chemical conformations of a carbon-carbon chemical bond from front to back, with the front carbon represented by a dot and the back carbon as a circle.


A ________ conformation is a chemical conformation that exists in any open chain single chemical bond connecting two sp3 hybridised atoms as a conformational energy minimum.


A ________ conformation is a chemical conformation that exists in any open chain single chemical bond connecting two sp3 hybridised atoms as a conformational energy maximum.


A ________ is any atom in a molecule bearing groups such that an interchanging of any two groups leads to a stereoisomer.


________ isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism involving molecules with the same structural formula existing as different conformers due to atoms rotating about a bond.


Van der Waals ________ results from van der Waals repulsion when two substituents in a molecule approach each other with a distance less than the sum of their van der Waals radii.


________ refers to the physical property of a molecule that is repelled from a mass of water


A ________ is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.


________ refers to a physical property of a molecule that can transiently bond with water through hydrogen bonding.


________ is a term in chemistry that refers to the property of liquids to mix, forming a homogeneous solution.


________ refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.


________ compounds are organic compounds in which carbon atoms are joined together in straight or branched chains or in rings, that can be either saturated or unsaturated, but not aromatic.


________ is a common name for the group of alkane hydrocarbons.


________ is a measure of the speed at which a substance turns into a vapor from a solid or liquid state.


________ organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemical compounds that have high enough vapour pressures under normal conditions to significantly vaporize and enter the atmosphere.


________ is a term describing a chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.


A ________ or distribution coefficient is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in the two phases of a mixture of two immiscible solvents at equilibrium.


A ________ solvent is a solvent that carries a hydrogen bond between an oxygen as in a hydroxyl group or a nitrogen as in an amine group.


Liquid-liquid or solvent ________, also known as partitioning, is a method to separate compounds based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water and an organic solvent.


________ is the ability of a substance to attract water molecules from the surrounding environment through either absorption or adsorption.


A ________ liquid is a mixture consisting of more than two immiscible liquid phases.


Relative ________ is a measure of the vapor pressure differences of the components in a liquid mixture of chemicals.


________s are amphiphilic molecules that have hydrophilic groups at both ends of a sufficiently long hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain.


________ is a term which literally means fat rejection and describes compounds which are not soluble in lipids or other non-polar solvents.


________-Huggins solution theory is a mathematical model of the thermodynamics of polymer solutions which takes account of the great dissimilarity in molecular sizes in adapting the usual expression for the entropy of mixing.


A material is called ________ if it forms liquid crystal phases because of the addition of a solvent.


________ acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell.


________ acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group.


Amines and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds are organic ________s.


________s are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. Structurally they resemble ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl and aryl groups.


Has four groups bonded to it; R side chain, amino group, carboxyl group, and hydrogen , refers to the first carbon that attaches to a functional group

alpha carbon

Acidity in aldehydes & ketones may occur with this atom

alpha hydrogen

describes the exact spatial arrangement of groups of atoms independent of other molecules.

absolute configuration

all peaks are assigned abundances as percentages of the base peak. abundance of 10 means that peak is 10% as high as the base peak


any organic compound formed by adding alcohol molecules to aldehyde molecules


pH values below 7


R-CO-Cl, inorganic acid chlorides like SOCl₂, PCl₃, and PCl₅ each react with carboxylic acids by nucleophlic substitution to form ____ _____.
are Bronsted-Lowry acids.

acyl chlorides

organic compounds containing hydroxyl groups , ROH


any group or radical of the form RCO- where R is an organic group

acyl group

R-C=O-H , Carbon atom of the carbonyl group is bonded to another carbon and one hydrogen atom


-always results in beta hydroxy carbonyl group
-requires the presence of alpha hydrogens , What is the name of the reaction of two aldehydes or an aldehyde and a ketone?

aldol condensation

1) Alanine
2) Proline
3) Valine
4) Glycine (Only non-chiral AA)
5) Leucine
6) IsoIeucine

aliphatic acids

a hydrocarbon containing only single covalent bonds, CnH2n+2


any unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon, consists of at least one carbon to carbon double bond


a salt formed by replacing the hydroxyl ion of an alcohol with a metal, a compound derived from an alcohol and containing a metal atom bonded to an oxygen atom


if an alcohol is used instead of water in the creation of an alcohol from a alkene the process is known as alkoxy


groups of atoms that form when one hydrogen atom is removed from an alkane molecule; alkanes with a hydrogen atom removed

alkyl groups

any organic compound containing the group -CONH2

amide compounds which contain and are often actually based on one or more atoms of nitrogen. Structurally _______resemble ammonia in that the nitrogen can bond up to three hydrogens, but ________also have additional properties based on their carbon connectivity.


A molecule that has both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region.


oxides that contain no water, Consisting of an internal Oxygen in between two Carbons each with a double bond to another Oxygen: -(C=O)-O-(C=O)


monosaccharides differing only in their configuration at the hemiacetal/hemiketal carbon in a pyranose ring (can be alpha or beta)


An addition reaction in which the two added substituents add to opposite sides of the molecule


the acid or electrophile(Br-) adds to the least subsituted carbon while the hydrogen adds to the carbon with most hydrogens


(chemistry) of or relating to or containing one or more benzene rings


a closed chain of 6 carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached , consists of 5 or 6 carbons joined together in a cyclic structure with alternating double and single bonds

benzene ring

Hydrogens whose bonds lie approximately perpendicular to the plane of a cycloalkane ring

axial hydrogens

C6H6 , the primary aromatic hydrocarbon


a light strong brittle gray toxic bivalent metallic element


rule that the most substitituted alkene is the major product, in the dehydration of an alcohol, hydrogen is removed from the carbon that already has the smaller number of hydrogen atoms to form an alkene

saytzeff rule

an elimination in which the two atoms lost are a hydrogen atom and a halogen atom


because acetals and ketals are unreactive towards bases, they are often used as _____ ______

blocking groups

the energy required to break the bond between two covalently bonded atoms

bond dissociation energy

the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms

bond energy

3 >2> 1> +CH3 More carbons nearby =more stable, Carbocations are classifided by the number of R gourps bonded to the charged carbon atom: Primary (1), Secondary (2), tertiary (3).
As the number of R groups increases, carboncation stability increases.
Carbocation stability is determined by inductive effects and hyperconjugation effects.

carbocation stability

C=O, a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond-ketones and aldehydes


R-COOH, an organic compound containing a carboxyl group

carboxylic acids

the difference between the position of absorption of TMS and that of a particular proton.

chemical shift

an atom with substituents arranged so that the molecule is not superimposable on its mirror image, carbon atom bonded to four different groups

chiral center

A property of a compound to exist in both left and right forms; occurs whenever a compound contains an asymmetric carbon


A physical process used to determine what type of substances have been mixed together


The isomer in which the substituents are on the same side of the double bond.


Fill a buret and filter your mixture through particles in the buret into a beaker

column chromotography

a rapid reaction between oxygen and fuel that produces thermal energy


stereoisomers that differ by rotation about one or more single bonds, usually represented using newmman projections.

conformational isomer

structures that differ only by rotations about single bonds. introvert at room temperature; thus, they are not different compounds and not true isomers


occurs when there is a weak base and a carbonyl group; this is where equilibrium goes towards.

conjugate addition

a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons

coordinate covalent bond

are strain free due to reduction in eclipsing interactions and the chair/boat conformations; each carbon in this is bonded to a hydrogen in teh axial position and another in teh equatorial position; axial hydrogens alternate their position (up and down) across an imaginary internal plane for each adjacent carbon


a crystalline amino acid found in proteins (especially keratin)


5 different orbitals shaped like clover leaves and max electrons is 10

d orbital

The unit used to express dipole moments.


the process of removing a carboxyl group from a chemical compound (usually replacing it with hydrogen)


the electrons involved in metallic bonding that are free to move easily from one atom to the next throughout the metal and are not attached to a particular atom

delocalized electrons

stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other


instrument that records numbers which correspond to the rise in the line.

digital trace

a compound whose molecules are composed of two identical monomers


Product of the amount of partial charge at either end of a molecule's dipole multiplied by the distance between them, given equation "p=qd". P is the dipole moment, q is the partial charge, and d is the distance separating the dipole

dipole moment

the process of purifying a liquid by boiling it and condensing its vapors


Lipids that exert complex control over many bodily systems, mainly in inflammation or immunity, and as messengers in the central nervous system.


tend to increase shielding and increase the required field strength for resonance., activate the ring and direct any substituents to the ortho and para positions, includes the groups: -O, -OH, -NR2, -OR, -R

electron donating groups

the reduction of the attractive force between a positively charged nucleus and its outermost electrons due to the cancellation of some of the positive charge by the negative charges of the inner electrons

electron shielding

in the R position, deactivates the ring and directs new subtituents to the meta position, Strong: NO₂, Halogens
Moderate: Carbonyls (Ketone, Aldehyde, Ester, C.A.), Nitrile, Sulfonate
Weak: -X

electron withdrawing group

A type of addition reaction in which an electrophile is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.

electrophilic addition

An amino group attached to a carbon in a carbon-carbon double bond.


the ratio of pure enantiomer to racemic mixture. optical purity equals ___ ____ for any mixture of enantiomers

enantiomeric purity

either one of a pair of compounds (crystals or molecules) that are mirror images on each other but are not identical


Can change from one polymorphism form to another and is reversible by varying temperature and pressure


- a resonance-stabilized carbanion
- negatively charged & nucleophilic
note: strong base

enolate ion



Isomers that differ in configuration at only one of several chiral centers, Monosaccharides which differ in configuration about a single ANOMERIC carbon


An ether in which the oxygen is incorporated into a three-membered ring , (R₂C-CR₂)-O


formed by reaction between an acid and an alcohol with elimination of water, contains an internal O=C-O- group




the process of obtaining something from a mixture or compound by chemical or physical or mechanical means


Charge assigned to an atom in a molecule or polyatmic ion, calculated by (# valence electrons) - (# 1/2 bonding electrons) - (# nonbonding electrons). Molecules containing atoms with lower formal charges tend to be more stable than those with higher formal charges.

formal charge

Uses a machine that vaporizes a liquid to a gas then passes through coils and the speed with which it moves lets you know its molecular weight

gas chromotography

Molecule with two hydroxyl groups an the same carbon

geminal diol

two ether groups that share a carbon (with two R groups), R'O(CR2)OR'


Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital


a compound containing a halogen atom and a hydroxyl group on adjacent carbons; those containing Br and OH are bromohydrins, and those containing Cl and OH are chlorohydrins


the heat of reaction for the complete burning of one mole of a substance

heat of combustion

an organic compound usually formed as an intermediate product in the preparation of acetals from aldehydes or ketones


Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital


For a molecule to be aromatic it must have 4n+2 pi electrons

huckels rule

Anti-markovnikov addition, syn addition, replacement of BR2 with other functionalities, quasicyclic intermediate


a crystalline amino acid obtained from gelatin or collagen


Compound with a carbon double-bonded to nitrogen (C=N).


the number of pairs of hydrogens a compound requires in order to become a saturated alkane

index of hydrogen deficiency

when a very polar molecule comes in contact with a nonpolar molecule, it can cause the nonpolar molecule to become a temporary dipole.

induced dipoles

measures molecular vibrations that can be seen as bond stretching, bending, or combinations.

infrared spectroscopy

line drawn above the peaks that rises each time it goes over a peak. the rise of the ___ ____ is in proportion to the number of chemically equivalent hydrogens in the peak beneath it

integral trace

The atom or group of atoms that leave during a substitution or elimination; these are usually stable atoms, weak bases.

leaving group

have 2 symetrical chiral centers, therefore, they are achiral

meso compounds

hydrocarbon with a C-triple bond-N


resonance of protons to radiation in a magnetic field


a molecule must have this to be able to be studied using NMR. common nuclei are H, C, F O N P

nuclear spin

A species that tends to donate electrons to another atom. They are attracted to positive charge, a nucleus, (protons and neutrons). In protic solvents and situations with different attacking atoms, its strength correlates to size. In aprotic solvents with the same attacking atom, its strength corresponds to basicity.


A type of substitution reaction in which a nucleophile is attracted to an electron-deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.

nucleophilic substitution

the number of degrees through which a compound rotates the plane of polarized light

observed rotation

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