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221 terms

GEN CHEM Review

combo of terms
STUDY
PLAY
ionic
The _____ bond forms when electrons transfer completely from one atom to another, resulting in oppositely charged species that attract each other via electrostatic interaction.
joule
work and energy have the same unit; the _ _ _ _ _
U=kq1q2/r
formula for electric potential energy
coulomb's constant
k, is the symbol for the electrostatic constant, also known as _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _+_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
electric potential energy
U is the symbol for _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _+_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _+_ _ _ _ _ _ , which is the stored energy a charge has based on it's location in an electric field; work is done whenever an object moves with/against the field
anion negative
In an ionic bond, if Q represents a cation, q represents the charge on the _ _ _ _ _, and it is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
negative (sign on q is negative in an ionic bond)
The electrostatic potential energy in an ionic bond is positive or negative? (Why?)
T
T or F With electrostatic energy, the negative sign is frequently dropped and only the magnitude of the electrostatic energy is used.
stronger
The greater the magnitude of electrostatic potential, the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the ionic bond.
weaker
If r is big, the ionic bond is weaker or stronger?
stronger
If Q or q is big, the ionic bond is weaker or stronger?
weaker
If Q or q is small, the ionic bond is weaker or stronger?
stronger
If r is small, the ionic bond is weaker or stronger?
Lattice Energy
the energy required to separate 1 mol of the ions of an ionic compound; it is equal in magnitude to the negative energy in the ionic bonds
Coulomb's Law
The electric force between charged objects is given by ________+_________, and depends on the distance between the objects and the magnitude of the charges.
F=kq1q2/r^2
Coulomb's Law
1.6x10^-19 coulombs
This is the magnitude of the charges on a proton and an electron plus the unit
Electrostatic Force
This is the name of the force particles exert on each other because of their electric charge; given by Coulomb's Law
9x10^9
The value of Coulomb's constant, k, is ________
Coulomb's Law
F=kq1q2/r^2

electric force between charged objects depends on the distance between the objects and the magnitude of the charges.
Law of Gravitation
F=Gm1m2/r^2

(physics) the law that states any two bodies attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
k>G
F=Gm1m2/r^2
F=kq1q2/r^2

gravitational force is weaker compared to the much stronger electrostatic force because _ is larger than _
Newton's second law
f=ma, A net force acting on an object will cause that object to accelerate in the direction of the net force.
Newton's first law (law of inertia)
An object in motion (or at rest) will tend to stay in motion (or at rest) until it is acted upon by an outside force.
Law of Inertia
The other name for Newton's first law
Newton's Third Law
Every action has an equal and opposite reaction
Newton's Third Law
Which law applies to propulsion and explains why rockets work even in the vacuum of space.
it doubles
What happens to electrostatic force if you double q1?
it quadruples
What happens to electrostatic force if r is cut in half?
covalent bond
(chemistry) This bond results when there is a sharing of electrons between two atoms, resulting in the overlap of their electron orbitals.
σ bond
type of bond where electron density is in the same plane as the bond. Constitutes a single bond
π bond
The reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of orbitals
T
T or F It does not matter what shapes the orbitals have or what types they are. They can be s orbitals or p orbitals or hybrid orbitals. What makes each of these a sigma bond is that the orbital overlap occurs directly between the nuclei of the atoms.
sp3
hybridization?
sp
hybridization?
sp2
hybridization?
F
T or F? An sp3 hybridized carbon is a triple bond?
4
Number of hybrid orbitals in sp3?
2
Number of hybrid orbitals in sp?
3
Number of hybrid orbitals in sp2?
3
Number of atoms bonded to sp2 carbon? (no unbonded electron pairs)
2
Number of atoms bonded to sp carbon? (no unbonded electron pairs)
4
Number of atoms bonded to sp3 carbon? (no unbonded electron pairs)
tetrahedral
shape of sp3 hybridized? (no unbonded electron pairs)
linear
shape of sp hybridized? (no unbonded electron pairs)
trigonal planar
shape of sp2 hybridized? (no unbonded electron pairs)
linear
all possible shapes of sp hybridized?
trigonal planar, bent
all possible shapes of sp2 hybridized?
tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal, bent
all possible shapes of sp3 hybridized?
sp
Hybridization of the triple bond?
sigma
Are hybridized bonds sigma bonds? or pi bonds?
sp2
Hybridization of the double bond?
green
What color(s) are pi bonds?
yes, sp3
Is blue a hybridized orbital? If it is, what is the hybridization?
red, blue, green
What color(s) are sp hybridized orbitals?
orange, purple
what color(s) are pi bonds?
red, blue, green
what color(s) are sigma bonds?
5
how many of the bonds are sigma bonds?
object (inertia) action (sum of the forces) reaction (negative F)
Newton's mnemonic
1) o
2) a
3) r
lewis structure
a structure that uses electron-dots and dashes to show how electrons are arranged in molecules. Central atom is the least electronegative.
formal charge
The number of valence electrons in an isolated atom minus the number of electrons assigned to the atom in the Lewis structure
ammonia
a pungent gas compounded of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3)
ammonium
the ion NH4 derived from ammonia
borane
a covalent hydride of boron
hydride
any binary compound formed by the union of hydrogen and other (generally less electronegative) elements
covalent hydride
a compound consisting of hydrogen and one other more electronegative element
borohydride
a compound containing the ion BH4−. Such compounds are mainly used as reducing agents in organic synthesis.
bromide
The name for an ion of Br- or for a chemical compound containing that ion.
carbanion
A compound containing a negatively charged carbon atom. A carbon-based anion.
carbocation
positive charge resides on C; highly reactive; occurs in SN1 and E1 reactions; electrophilic
imine
Compound with a carbon double-bonded to nitrogen (C=N).
methane
a colorless odorless gas used as a fuel
ozone
a gas molecule that is made up of three oxygen atoms
nonbonding electrons
(consider the bonds in the atom above) Name for the valence electrons not involved in forming covalent bonds. Also called unshared pairs or lone pairs
bonding electrons
(consider the bonds in the atom above) Name for the valence electrons that participate in bonding
dashes
(consider the bonds in the atom above) The bonding electrons are represented by dashes or dots?
dots
(consider the bonds in the atom above) The nonbonding electrons are represented by dashes or dots?
lewis acid (most inclusive definition)
Electron pair acceptor that may or may not donate a proton
lewis base (most inclusive definition)
Electron pair donor that may or may not accept a proton
arrhenius acid (most specific definition)
Electron pair acceptor & proton donor, that produces H+ ions when dissolved in water
arrhenius base (most specific definition)
Electron pair donor & proton acceptor that produces OH- ions when dissolved in water
bronsted lowry acid (intermediate definition)
Electron pair acceptor that is a proton donor
bronsted lowry base (intermediate definition)
Electron pair donor that is a proton acceptor
highest energy occupied molecular orbital
HOMO stands for
lowest energy unoccupied molecular orbital
LUMO stands for
HOMO
(Lewis Acids/Bases) Between HOMO and LUMO which is "filled" prior to the formation of the lewis complex?
coordinate covalent bond
a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons
dipole moment
equation for?
F
T or F the dipole moment measures the swing of electrons back and forth between atoms
nonpolar (because dipole moment is the vector sum of the individual bond dipole moments; which cancel in a tetrahedral molecule)
This molecule is polar or nonpolar? Why?
net dipole moment (the vector sum of the individual bond dipole moments do not cancel so water is a polar molecule)
What does the "up arrow" stand for?
Yes (because the molecules are too far apart)
T or F Dipole Dipole interactions are negligible in the gas phase. Why or why not?
Dispersion Forces (London Forces)
What intermolecular forces exist between noble gas atoms?
van der Waals forces
the two weakest intermolecular attractions- dispersion interactions and dipole forces
intermolecular forces
the forces of attraction between molecules (general term)
ion-dipole interactions are not, dipole-dipole interactions and dispersion forces (london forces) are
What types of intermolecular forces are not van der Waals forces, what types are?
london forces, induced dipole interactions
The other 2 names for dispersion forces
orbits the nucleus
"_________________" decribes the behavior of the hydrogen electron in the Bohr model.
spherical probability cloud
"_________________" decribes the location of the hydrogen electron in quantum mechanics.
n
This is the symbol for the "principal quantum number"
m
This is the symbol for the "magnetic quantum number"
s
This is the symbol for the "spin quantum number"
l
This is the symbol for the "angular momentum quantum number"
l, m, n, s
These are the 4 letters that represent the 4 quantum numbers
m
This quantum number can be any integer between -L and +L
T
T or F, an integer includes 0?
K=2, L=8, M=18, N=32
these are the number of electrons held by the first 4 SHELLS
(1=?, 2=?, 3=?, 4=? ...but put the letter of the shell in place of the numbers)
principal quantum number
n is the symbol for a quantum number called the "_________________"
magnetic quantum number
m is the symbol for a quantum number called the "_________________"
spin quantum number
s is the symbol for a quantum number called the "_________________"
angular momentum quantum number
l is the symbol for a quantum number called the "_________________"
principal
The "_________________" quantum number defines what shell the electron is in
principal
The "_________________" quantum number describes the SIZE of the orbital
angular momentum
The "_________________" quantum number describes the SHAPE of the orbital
spin
The "_________________" quantum number describes the DIRECTION in which an electron spins
magnetic
The "_________________" quantum number describes an orbital's ORIENTATION in space
magnetic
The 3 images depict a change in the "_________________" quantum number
principal
The 3 images depict a change in the "_________________" quantum number
angular momentum
The 3 images depict a change in the "_________________" quantum number
Orientation, m
what attribute of the electron orbital changes in the picture? what is the symbol for the quantum number associated with this attribute?
Size, n
what attribute of the electron orbital changes in the picture? what is the symbol for the quantum number associated with this attribute?
Shape, l
what attribute of the electron orbital changes in the picture? what is the symbol for the quantum number associated with this attribute?
o
The electrons in the s subshell of this shell are highest in energy. (K, L, M, N, or O?)
n^2
The equation for the number orbitals per shell. (This is true for the 1st four shells only)
2
There are "_________________" electrons per orbital.
2n^2
The equation for electrons per shell
higher
Excited states are "_________________" in energy than ground states.
excited states
"_________________"
ground state
"_________________"
emission spectra
"_________________"
absorption spectrum
"_________________"
emission
This spectrum has a longer wavelength (absorption or emission)
s, p, d, f
These are the first four electron subshells
f
The image represents this subshell
p
The image represents this subshell
d
The image represents this subshell
s
The image represents this subshell
2
The number of electrons held by this subshell when it is full
6
The number of electrons held by this subshell when it is full
10
The number of electrons held by this subshell when it is full
14
The number of electrons held by this subshell when it is full
±L (orientation)
values of m (magnetic quantum number)
±1/2
values of s (spin quantum number)
1-7 (size)
_ - _ are the values of n (principal quantum number)
0-3 (shape)
_ - _ are the values of l (angular momentum quantum number)
1
The number of orbitals in this subshell
3
The number of orbitals in this subshell
5
The number of orbitals in this subshell
7
The number of orbitals in this subshell
4L+2
formula for number of electrons in any subshell
done (1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d)
Name all the orbitals in order, then type "done"
[He]2s^2 2p^1
Conventional notation for electronic structure:
Boron B
[Ne]3s^2
Conventional notation for electronic structure:
Magnesium Mg
[Ar]4s^1 3d^5
Conventional notation for electronic structure:
Chromium Cr
[Ar]4s^1 3d^10
Conventional notation for electronic structure:
Copper Cu
[Ar]4s^2 3d^10 4p^5
Conventional notation for electronic structure:
Bromine Br
blue
This color light is most scattered by tiny particles (atoms or molecules smaller than a wavelength of light)
Rayleigh scattering
"_________________" is the reason the sky is blue
gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwaves, radio waves
These are the 7 forms of electromagnetic radiation
there is less air (tiny particles)
When the sun is at its zenith in the sky, it appears white or yellow. As it sets, it reddens. It is red on the horizon and yellow overhead because "_________________" between an observer and the sun when the sun is at its zenith.
Hund's rule
"_________________" states that orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin
The Aufbau principle
"_________________" states that an electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it
Pauli exclusion principle
"_________________" states that no electron can have the same quantum state as another electron in an atom
Cr, Mo, W, Cu, Ag, Au
"Instead of s2d4, it's s1d5 and s1d10 because they want to achieve a half-full or full d subshell."
This describes the situation for these 6 elements: "_________________"
s1d5 s1d10
{Cr, Mo, W, Cu, Ag, Au} instead of s2d4 and s2d9 we get "_________________"
effective nuclear charge
"_________________" is the nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom (actual pull due to charge of nucleus minus the shielding caused by inner shell electrons: Abbreviated as Z(eff)
up, right
In the periodic table, the effective nuclear charge increases as we go "_________________"
equals
the effective nuclear charge "_________________" the number of valence electrons
inner
In this Al atom, when considering the electrons in the second shell, what shell are the shielding electrons located in?
3
Calculate the effective nuclear charge of this Al atom.
alkali metals
Is the name for this family of elements
metals
These families of elements are all "_________________"
halogens
Is the name for this family of elements
noble gases
Is the name for this family of elements
alkaline earth metals
Is the name for this family of elements
transition metals
Is the name for this family of elements
s-block, p-block
Representative elements include these parts of the periodic table.
first ionization energy
The energy needed to knock off the first valence electron.
second ionization energy
The energy needed to knock off the second valence electron.
increasing radii
Ionization energy decreases as you go down because of
decreasing radii
Ionization energy increases as you go right because of
ionic
If the electronegativity difference is too great, an "_________________" bond occurs instead of a covalent one.
covalent
electronegativity is how much something hordes electrons in a "_________________" bond
electronegative
The more "_________________" element in a covalent bond gets a larger share of the electrons and has a partial negative charge
effective nuclear charge
Filling to the next shell causes a jump in atom size because of decreased "_________________"
shield
As you fill up a shell, the effective nuclear charge increases because the atomic number (protons) is increasing while the same-shell electrons you add do not "_________________" one another.
electron affinity
the amount of energy released when something gains an electron (how easily it can gain an electron).
alkaline earth metals noble gases
With electron affinity, we see endothermic (negative energy and a cooling of the reaction container) in which 2 columns?
electron affinity
half filled shells, negative energy, nitrogen, and 3d10 group metals is associated with electron affinity or electronegativity?
negative unfavorable a half-filled subshell is especially stable
Nitrogen's electron affinity is "_________________" Adding an electron or taking one away from Nitrogen is energetically "_________________" This is because "_________________"
Hund's Rule The Aufbau Principle
What specific rule/principle does B violate? What more general rule does it also violate?
Nitrogen
What element is A?
5
How many valence electrons does A have?
Oxygen
What element is D?
Iron
What is element 26?
Bromine
What is element 35?
H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Symbols for the 1st 18 elements?
Pauli Exclusion Principle
What specific rule/principle is not violated by B?
Effective Nuclear Charge
Pull on valence electrons due to the charge of the nucleus (minus the opposite pull of shielding electrons)
one quantum state per electron
The main point of Pauli Exclusion Principle
in orbitals with 2 electrons, the electrons must have opposite spin, and all lone electrons in an orbital in a subshell must have the same spin
The main 2 points of Hund's rule
Glycine (Gly/G)
Nonpolar, aliphatic R Groups
Alanine (Ala/A)
Nonpolar, aliphatic R Groups
Proline (Pro/P)
Nonpolar, aliphatic R Groups
Valine (Val/V)
Nonpolar, aliphatic R Groups
Leucine (Leu/L)
Nonpolar, aliphatic R Groups
Isoleucine (Ile/I)
Nonpolar, aliphatic R Groups
Methionine (Met/M)
Nonpolar, aliphatic R Groups
Phenylalanine (Phe/F)
Aromatic R groups
Tyrosine (Tyr/Y)
Aromatic R groups
Tryptophan (Trp/W)
Aromatic R groups
Serine (Ser/S)
Polar, uncharged R groups
Threonine (Thr/T)
Polar, uncharged R groups
Cysteine (Cys/C)
Polar, uncharged R groups
Asparagine (Asn/N)
Polar, uncharged R groups
Glutamine (Gln/Q)
Polar, uncharged R groups
Lysine (Lys/K)
Positively charged R groups
Arginine (Arg/R)
Positively charged R groups
Histidine (His/H)
Positively charged R groups
Aspartate (Asp/D)
Negatively charged R groups
Glutamate (Glu/E)
Negatively charged R groups