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21 terms

Chapter 14: Personality

Ohio State University Psychology 100
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personality
people's typical way of thinking, feeling, and behaving
traits
relatively enduring predisposition that influences our behavior across many situations
nomothetic approach
focuses on identifying general laws that govern the behavior of all individuals
idiographic approach
focuses on identifying the unique configuration of characteristics and life history experiences within a person
shared environmental factors
experiences making individuals within the family more alike
non-shared environmental factors
experiences making individuals within the family less alike
molecular genetics studies
allows researchers to pinpoint genes associated with specific traits
psychoanalytic theory
Freud's theory that many mental disorders were produced by psychological rather than physiological factors
psychic determinism
the assumption that all psychological events have a cause
unconscious motivation
personality is caused more by the unconscious than the conscious
Id
reservoir of our most primitive impulses, including sex and aggression
pleasure principle
tendency of the id to strive for immediate gratification
superego
our sense of morality
ego
psyche's executive and principal decision maker
reality principle
tendency of the ego to postpone gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet
factor analysis
statistical technique that analyzes the correlation among responses on personality inventories and other measures
the big five
five traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analysis of personality measures; openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
lexical approach
approach proposing that the most crucial features of personality are embedded in our language
basic tendencies
underlying personality traits
characteristics adaptions
behavioral manifestations of basic tendencies
cosmetic psychopharmacology
use of medications to produce long-term alterations in personality