- All living things are composed of cells,
- Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
-New cells are produced from existing cells.
-is a large memebrane- enclosed structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA.
-makes proteins and other important molecules.
- do not contain a nuclei
- cells have genetic material that is not contained in a nucleus
-basic, no nucleus, no organelles, bacteria
- grow, reproduce, respond to the environment and some can even move by gliding along surfaces or swimming through liquids
- contain a nuclei
- cells contain a nucleus in which thier genetic material is seperated from the rest of the cell
-complex, nucleus, has organelles
-plants, animals, fungi, protists, and humans
- divided into two major parts: nucleus and cytoplasm
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell.
-surround the nucleus
-composed of lipoproteins (lipids/protein)
-selective permeable(lets certain things in and lets certain things out)
- granular material inside the nucleus.
-Composed of DNA and protein.
-Pass on traits and control the cell
- small, dense regions inside the nucleus
- assembly of ribosomes (make proteins)
-makes rRNA & tRNA
-produced bythe nucleolus
-site of protein synthesis
-small particles of protein and RNA
-Attached to Endoplasmic Reticulum (rough)
-Free or attached
Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R)
-there are 2 types of E.R.
-Found throughout the cytosol
-a system of membranes forming tubes and channels
-lipid compoonents for cell membranes are assembled, along with proteins
-Find them in cytoplasm
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
- makes membrane materials
- smooth surface
- makes lipids/membrane material
-the Golgi Apparatus sorts, Chemically Alters, Modifies, and Packages important molecules
-accepts and releases incoming vesicles from the E.R.
-Materials are either stored in the cell or secreted outside the cell.
-stack of closely apposed membranes
-cell's Digestive System
-"cleanup crew"of the cells
-breaks down macromolecules into useable parts
-breakdown outlived organelles
-comes from the Goligi Apparatus
-serves water regulatuion, support, and storage
-stores H20 salts, proteins and carbs
-freshwater organisms have contractile vacuole
-converts chemical energy stored in food into energy easier for the cell
-called the powerhouse
-has outer and inner membrane
-ATP is created here
-convert sunlight into energy
-only in plant cells
-green in color
-surrounded by two membranes
-threadlick for cell movment
-hollow structures used to maintain cell shape and cell division(Centrioles)
1-threadlike and absorb/ move materials. helps with respiatory system
2-cell movement specifically
-cells are surrounded by a thin ,flexible barrier
-regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support
-have two thin layers of lipids(phospholid, bilayer
Carbohydrates- attached to proteins , cell identification
Proteins-help move materials across a membrane
-movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Reaches an equilibrium
- does not require energy
-movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane
-cells must have a balance between intake and loss of water to survive.
-three types of soution: isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic
-defined as a way for substances that cannot diffuse through a cell membrane on thier own move through protein channels instead.
-Only occurs from higher to lower concentration.
-does not require energy
-Moving aganist a concentration gradient (less to high)
-done either by pumps or protein channels.
Endocytosis and Exocytosis are used to move
larger molecules and even solid clumps across a membrane
tiny packets form along the cell membrane, fill with liquids and pinch off to form vacoles within the cell
releasing large amounts of material from the cell. Vesicle fuses with the cell membrane and forces contents out of the cell.
-ex Active Transport
- a single-celled oraganism
-some types of algae are single-celled
-include prokaryotes and eukaryotes
-some even live within the human body
-Cells through out an organism can develop in different ways to perform different tasks
-perform particular functions in the cell
-the human body contains scores of different cell types
-some cells are specialized to react to the environment