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CMC Final Exam (Ch. 3, 11-13)
Terms in this set (85)
Sound on Tape (SOT)
In TV production this is used to describe audio captured on location at the time of a video or film recording
the distance from the crest of the wave to the trough (the louder the sound, the greater the amplitude and the taller its waveform will be)
what amplitude is measured in, it is a logarithmic unit of measurement used to quantify the sound pressure level (SPL) or magnitude.
As molecules move in an inward direction, they are pushed closer together, leading to an increase in molecular density and sound pressure. This is the process of reencoding data using fewer bits. It is designed to reduce the file size of a digital asset without adversely affecting its resolution.
describes a sound's relative low or high pitch
WAV (Waveform Audio File Format)
Container format for digital audio, contains raw uncompressed PCM audio streams.
Uses acoustical energy and mechanical vibration as the means for producing the electromagnetic signal required for analog recording. They do not require a power source, are durable, inexpensive, moisture, and shock resistant.
Uses a capacitor to record variations in amplitude and frequency. The capacitor has two parts, the back plate and the diaphragm. As the diaphragm vibrates, the distance between it and the back plate changes, thus modulating the intensity of the voltage signal.
Polar Pattern (pickup pattern)
Microphones are classified according to this, and it refers to how well a microphone picks up sound with 360 degrees of its central axis.
The pickup pattern is a sphere around the microphone though not entirely a perfect one. They respond equally to sound in all directions, but sometimes it can obscure the path of a sound wave.
Picks up sound equally from the front and rear of the element. Most ribbon microphones are bidirectional. These are idea for interviews where the host and guest are seated on opposite sides of a table.
Uses a thin metal ribbon of corrugated meta as the transduction element. These microphones are technically superior to moving-coil designs because they respond to sound bidirectionally.
Have a unidirectional polar pattern with a heart-like shape. This pickup pattern favors sounds coming from the front and sides up to 130 degrees. Relatively narrow pickup field and do a good job of rejecting ambient sound from the rear of the microphone.
Supercardioid, hypercardioid, and ultracardioid (shotgun)
Other members of the unidirectional family, and each progression comes with a narrower pickup field and an expanded area of sound rejection from the rear of the microphone. The narrower the pickup pattern, the more proactive the operator needs to be in aiming the microphone directly at the sound source during recording.
Designed for the client or performer to hold a recording session, they are ideal for rugged use and heavy handling but they need to be close to the mouth (3-6 inches).
Lavaliere microphones (lapel or lav)
Designed specifically for speech and vocal acquisition.
Among the most directional microphones. They feature a condenser element with an extremely narrow pickup pattern, shape is long and slender.
A shotgun is usually mounted to this, and this device allows the audio operator to extend the microphone 6 to 12 feet into the scene where the subject or actors are located.
The female attaches directly to the end of the microphone or power adapter, while the 3-pin male connector plugs into the recorder or mixer. These connectors have a locking mechanism on the metal casing to keep it from coming out during recording.
Radio Corporation of America designed and today it is used for connecting both audio and video signal paths of a diverse array of A/V devices like TV monitors, gaming consoles, projectors.
Used for hooking up cables and devices with incompatible connectors, needed in your audio kit.
Also known as record level, is controlled with buttons or dials on the recording equipment.
If too much amplification is applied, waveform distortion can occur causing this phenomenon.
Displays the strength of the microphone signalafter it has passed through the preamp.
Do this before recording with your subject, prompt them to speak in a normal tone of voice and use the VU meter as a visual reference to adjust the record levels.
Is a method for transmitting DC electric power through microphone cables to operate microphones that contain active electronic circuitry. It is best known as a convenient power source for condenser microphones, though many active direct boxes also use it.
Sound systems often allow you to adjust the bass, midrange, and treble output of a program source or channel through this feature that provides the user with separate controls for raising and lowering the gain of each frequency.
In electronics and audio consumer electronics gain is a unit of measurement used to mean the ratio of a signal output of a system to the signal input of the system. Gain is a term most commonly associated with amplifiers.
describes tones of low frequency or range (20-320 Hz)
medium pitch sounds (320-5,120 Hz)
high pitch sounds (5,120-20,000 Hz), largest segment of frequency spectrum.
A two-step process that includes the objective act of measuring sound intensity and setting the record levels and the subjective act of listening to the audio signal as it is being recorded.
The sound caused by releasing blocked air in speech, particularly from the pronunciation of the hard consonants (b, d, g, k, p, and t).
The difference in loudness, from the quietest point to the loudest.
Designed in kilohertz incidcates that the recording was sampled at a certain number of times per second. (The number of times an analog signal is measured (sampled) per second. The unit of sample rate is "samples per second". This is often expressed in kiloHertz (kHz). For example, "CD quality" sound has a sample rate of 44 kHz.)
To prevent twists and kinks from developing in a cable by forming a loop and then twisting the loop in the opposite direction immediately after.
Need a set of good quality ones, look for an over the ear rather than an earbud.
In order for a motion picture to be broadcast electronically it had to undergo reverse transcoding, using this device.
A digital format that offers a broad set of parameters that can be individually controlled by the camera operator for defining how a video signal is encoded.
A high density optical disc for distributing movies in HD, can store 5 times as much data as a DVD.
a portable combined video camera and video recorder.
magnetic tape for recording and reproducing visual images and sound.
A computer program or algorithm designed for encoding and decoding audio and video into a raw digital bitstream (or a sequence of data in binary form).
A technique that reduces bandwidth by applying more compression to the color channel of a video signal than it does to luminance.
Refers to the loss of quality between subsequent copies or transcodes of data. Anything that reduces the quality of the representation when copying, and would cause further reduction in quality on making a copy of the copy, can be considered this.
or MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding (MPEG-4 AVC) is a video compression format that is currently one of the most commonly used formats for the recording, compression, and distribution of video content.
Provides a resolution that is substantially higher than that of standard-definition television.
Used to contain multiple video and audio streams
a format for encoding data for storage on a storage medium. The format can be container information such as sectors on a disk, or user/audience information (content) such as analog stereo audio. Multiple levels of encoding may be achieved in one format.
A television picture tube
Video source material that is used to fill holes in the timeline where synchronized video is not included, or as a source of supplemental footage to accompany a video sound bite.
Nonlinear Editing (NLE)
A video (NLVE) or audio editing (NLAE) digital audio workstation (DAW) system that performs non-destructive editing on source material.
A short segment of a longer interview or speech that is inserted into a video program or news package.
Describes an on-camera interview segment that goes on for too long, potentially causing the viewer or listener to lose interest and disengage from the message. The average length of a sound bite should be less than 10 seconds.
Narrative device used to describe an audio segment that's recorded off-camera without synchronized video.
Nat sound (ambience)
Occurs in the background as a scene is being recorded.
Directs the viewers attention to a related object or alternative viewpoint within the current scene.
Avoid cutting between two shots that almost look the same, but the subject will have moved.
Replacing a small portion of the video on either side of the cut with video of the crowd to get rid of a jump cut.
Term used to describe a wide range of practices and techniques that editors use to achieve smooth and natural transitions from shot to shot over time. This enhances the narrative.
From time to time the editing software creates new video files representing the placement of a transition, effect, filter, title, or multilayer composite.
Where video and audio editing takes place, a visual interface component that's divided into horizontal regions called tracks.
When a video clip is added to the timeline, the video portion of the clip is placed on this.
The audio portion of a clip is put on this track on the timeline. These are normally grouped in linked stereo pairs.
In & Out Points
When you want to perform a split edit you have to set these to the video and audio clips.
Defines your position in a time-based clip and allows you to scrub slowly or rapidly through the clip by dragging it.
Allows you to hear the audio portion of the clip as you move the playhead back and forth, it's a useful technique for locating sound artifacts that you want to isolate in editing.
Every frame of a video is addressable via this. Whenever you mark an IN point or OUT point the location is stored as a numerical series of 8 digits denoting hours, minutes, seconds, and frames.
This is an effect applied to the timeline at the beginning or end of a video or audio clip. They are used to provide a sense of flow to a project and to guide the viewer's sense through changes in the narrative structure of a story.
The most common transition, it is an instantaneous transition from the end of one shot to the beginning of another shot. It has no duration and can be considered an invisible transition.
The fade-in is a gradual transition from black to fully opaque while a fade-out is a gradual transition in the opposite direction.
A gradual transition from one shot to another that is created by overlapping the fade-out of one clip with a fade-in of the next clip in the sequence. They are far less abrupt than cuts and are often used to signal a change in time, location, or tempo.
A larger rectangle, consisting of the green title-safe area and a rectangle around it shown in yellow.
Keying replaces the background pixels in a title graphic known as this.
In sound design this refers to "juicing up" the audio portion of a film, play, computer game software or any other multimedia project.
A technique by which a block of a particular color in a video image can be replaced either by another color or image, enabling, for example, a weather forecaster to appear against a background of a computer-generated weather map.
Altering the colors in an image in order to print or display it properly or for special effects.
A title graphic is placed on screen through this process.
Is used when one shot is printed in a single frame several times, in order to make an interesting illusion of a still photograph.
A vision mixer is a device used to select between several different video sources and in some cases compositing (mix) video sources together to create special effects. This is similar to what a mixing console does for audio.
Clips can be copied, deleted, moved, cut and edited numerous ways within NLE without affect the underlying media they refer to.
You want to stay within this area in a frame, this is where the titles will display well, and you must leave white space.
Or standard volume indicator (SVI) is a device displaying a representation of the signal level in audio equipment.
A visual representation of the amplitude signature of the audio clip across time.
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