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Praxis ESL App
Terms in this set (71)
prescriptive approach to grammar, meaning it emphasizes how one should "correct: speech in a given language. rules and structure are important
interdisciplinary field of lang. study that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems. fields in linguistics: education, psychology, anthropology, and sociology
study of structure of words; component of the grammar that includes the rules of word formation
difficulty finding words to use
major language in a specific area
study of signs and symbols
meaning of words
predictable phonetic realization; pattern; example: bat, rat, pat
basic form of sound
tells numbers; none, all, most, etc
this, these, that, etc.
to + verb
noun + ing, swimming is his passion. Verb + ing becomes a noun.
readING books is fun.
sleep: michael slept
find NO: michael found (incomplete)
modifies a verb; tells when, why, where, etc.
be, have, do, can, could, will, would, should, must,
the girl was kissed by the boy
the boy kissed the girl
present progressive tense
he IS READING a book
process of undoing an analysis; example, the little orange car sped. orange can be a noun, in this context, it's an adjective
their reference is ultimately context dependent. I, yesterday, there, that, etc.
subject of verb; i, you, she, he, it, we, they; she and I dance.
me, you, her, him, it, us; serve as direct object; just between you and me.
there and it
article a and the; with noun make a noun phrase
this, that, etc.
each, every, none, some, etc.
extra letters added to noun, verb, and adjectives
metaphors and idioms; require thinking to be understood. Alone, words make sense, but put together there's no semantic meaning.
most elemental unit of grammatical form; boy (1 morpheme), desire + able (2 morphemes)
words by themselves
need to be part of a word; suffix, prefix, etc.
morphemes inserted into other morphemes; un-f******-believable
create new words when added together
s, ed, ing, en, s, 's, er, est
extra letters added to nouns, verbs, and adjectives.
invention of new words of phrase
word taken from a proper name and made into a term . for example, Louis Braille, braille (writing for the blind)
lives to life
is when silent sounds in words become voiced. example, life - lives
word that replaces taboo word. example, jonh for toilet. Time of the month for period.
monitor hypothesis (krashen)
when teacher hears student with his utterance (spoken language) and corrects errors. This hypothesis focuses on accuracy rather than fluency.
the action of saying something outloud
natural order hypothesis (krashen)
students learn grammatical structures at their own pace. Some students may learn things earlier than others, teacher can't really accelerate it. Learning occurs in a natural order
acquisition-learning hypothesis (krashen)
acquisition: subconscious acceptance of knowledge where information is stored in the brain through the use of communication.
Learning: conscious acceptance of info. Example, grammar. You choose to learn it.
input hypothesis (krashen)
i + 1 ; learning happens when learners receive messages that they can understand
affective filter hypothesis (krashen)
creating a motivating and welcoming environment in which students feel safe when making mistakes in their learning
reading hypothesis (krashen)
the more we read in target language, the greater our vocabulary will become
studnets' world view influences their cognitive processes
Words specific for a select group of people; ELL, PTA, STAAR, TELPAS
When people believe their culture or race is superior
Working with others and cooperating with each other
Promotes individual achievements; promotes "I"
When students no longer use L1 in new environment
Focuses on communicative goals within discourse
Pitch contour of a phrase or sentence
When a word or syllable receives primary stress
Accommodation used for high-stakes testing or content-area exams
Lau v. Nichols
Chinese; all equal isn't equal; textbooks for all isn't fair; offer accommodations and resources for ELL students
Plyer vs. Doe
Students receive education even if they're illegal
Castaneda v. Pickard
Bilingual education-for ELL programs to be evaluated
BICS and CALP
Human beings are born with pre-disposition to learn language.
Separate systems hypothesis
Bilingual students build a distinct lexicon and grammar for each language
Begins as pidgin and eventually becomes native language of a speech community
Picture to represent a word. Picture of bee to represent the verb be
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