Praxis II Social Studies

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Distinct region
Area of geography not a specific country or continent
Mont Blanc
Highest mountain in Italy, the Alps and the European Union part of the Andes mountain range
Mount Everest
Located in Nepal and Tibet part of Himalayan Range that goes from India, Nepal, Tibet (Part of China), Bhutan, and Pakistan
Rocky Mountains
Range from British Columbia to New Mexico 3000 miles
Andes
Longest Continental mountain range in the world located in south america countires Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina 4300 miles long and 430 miles wide
Name great lakes
Superior (most north and West largest surface and greatest water volume)
Michigan (Tall to the west)
Ontario (North East)
Erie (South East)
Huron (Middle)
Saturation Point
when a volume of air contains as much water vapor as it can hold at a given temperature
Resource critical Mass
is a sufficient number of adopters of an innovation in a social system so that the rate of adoption becomes self-sustaining and creates further growth.
Carrying Capacity
The maximum, sustained level of use of an environment that is possible without incurring significant environmental deterioration
Natural breaking Point
stress at which a person breaks down or a situation becomes crucial
renewable natural resources
Water Wind Trees
Non renewable resource
Oil, Coal, Iron
geographic factors that played a role in both Napoleon and Hitler's failure to invade Russia
A very poor road network
Inclement weather
A very poor agricultural base
What is considered the primary reason the U.S. built the Panama Canal
To create a faster way to ship goods from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
When was the Panama Canal built
1881-1914
environmental factors affecting human migration
Lack of fresh water sources
A devastating hurricane
Severe climate
What are considered the two basic cultural types that have developed throughout history in relation to the physical environment
Agricultural/settled and nomadic
Cores and peripheries
The countries of the world can be divided into two major world regions - the 'core' and the 'periphery.' The core includes major world powers and the countries that contain much of the wealth of the planet. The periphery are those countries that are not reaping the benefits of global wealth and globalization
Which empire encompassed the Mediterranean
Roman empire
Greek empire was located
Eastern Mediterranean shore to India
Greek or Roman Empire larger
Roman
Causes of WW1
Tension over the competition for colonies
Ethnic groups such as Poles and Czechs hoping for nations of their own
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Band
A band generally consists of a small kinship group, often no larger than an extended family or small clan.
Clan
A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. Even if actual lineage patterns are unknown, clan members nonetheless recognize a founding member or "apical ancestor."
Tribe
A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally, consists of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states, though some modern theorists hold that "contemporary" tribes can only be understood in terms of their relationship to states. The term is often loosely used to refer to any non-Western or indigenous society.

In common understanding the word "tribe" is a social division within a traditional society consisting of a group of interlinked families or communities sharing a common culture and dialect. In the contemporary western mind the modern tribe is typically associated with a seat of traditional authority (tribal leader) with whom the representatives of external powers (the governing state or occupying government) interact.
Ethnic group
n ethnic group is a human population whose members identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or lineage. Ethnic groups are also usually united by common cultural, behavioral, linguistic, or religious practices
Chiefdom
A chiefdom is any community led by an individual known as a chief. In anthropological theory, one model of human social development describes a chiefdom as a form of social organization more complex than a tribe, and less complex than a state or a civilization. The most succinct (but still working) definition of a chiefdom in anthropology belongs to Robert Carneiro: "An autonomous political unit comprising a number of villages or communities under the permanent control of a paramount chief."
State
A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. It usually includes the set of institutions that claim the authority to make the rules that govern the people of the society in that territory, though its status as a state often depends in part on being recognized by a number of other states as having internal and external sovereignty over it.
Vikings led by Leif Ericson
the first non-native people to explore the North American mainland
John Cabot
Italian navigator sailing for England -King Henry VII-
Second attempt made it to New Foundland in1497
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator/explorer sailing for the Spanish. Four trans Atlantic sails. Initiated the Spanish Colinization of the new world- Hispaniola
Columbus discoveries
During his first voyage in 1492, instead of reaching Japan as he had intended, Columbus landed in the Bahamas archipelago, at a locale he named San Salvador. Over the course of three more voyages, Columbus visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America, claiming them for the Spanish Empire.
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Portuguese explorer regarded as the discoverer of Brazil. Cabral conducted the first substantial exploration of the northeast coast of South America and claimed it for Portugal.
Massachusetts Bay
founded 1624-1628 a Puritanical ruled colony seeking to create a new church in America
The "Intolerable Acts"
Four laws passed by the british in responce to the Boston Tea Party
Boston Port Act (closing of the port)
Massachusetts Government Act (made all government appointed by the king or governor and limited 1 town hall meeting per year)
Administration of Justice Act- Gave the Governor the option to have trials of Royal Officials moved to other providences or back to England
Quartering Act- Gave all of the Govenors the right to house british soldiers in other buildings if suitable buildings were not available
Quebec Act
piece of legislation which although not explicitly related to the events in Boston came to be regarded as one of the Intolerable Acts. The timing of its passage in the same parliament session led colonists to believe that it was part of the program to punish them. The act extended the boundaries of what was then the British Province of Quebec south to the Ohio River and west to the Mississippi, and instituted reforms generally favorable to the French Catholic inhabitants of the region, although denying them an elected legislative assembly. The act removed references to the Protestant faith in the oath of allegiance, and guaranteed free practice of the Roman Catholic faith.
Articles of Confederation
1778 Agreement to unite the 13 states and form the Congress with extreme limitations on the central governments authority to War, International relations. The agreement assigned to the states all activities not specifically declare for the federal government. 13 articles with rights and responsibilities outlined
Constitution of the US
Adopted in1787, went into effect in1789 and ratified by 3/4ths of the states in1791. Consisted of 10 Consituional Amendments aka as the Bill of Rights. Has been ammended 17 times since. It provided a strong central government and federal taxation.
Manifest Destiny
The belief that America had the God-given right and duty to expand across the continent
The Monroe Doctrine
December 2, 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention--James Monroe
The War of 1812
US vs British Reasons: including trade restrictions brought about by Britain's ongoing war with France, the impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy, British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion, outrage over insults to national honor after humiliations on the high seas, and possible American desire to annex Canada.
The Second Great Awakening
a Protestant revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States. The movement began around 1790, gained momentum by 1800, and, after 1820 membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations, whose preachers led the movement.
North Advantage in Civil war
Greater manpower
Superior economic resources
Superior firepower
South Advantage in Civil War
More experienced military leadership
Associated with the Industrial Revolution
Development of new weaving and ironworking techniques
Vast expansion and improvement in roads and waterways
correct
Greatly increased prosperity and political power for the middle class
Contributing factors to the Great Depression
Income disparity between classes
Large debt increases
Slowed production levels
John D. Rockefeller
Standard Oil Company/Philatopist
Andrew Carnegie
US Steel
Andrew Mellon
Banker --Mellon helped organize the Union Trust Company and Union Savings Bank of Pittsburgh. He also branched into industrial activities: oil, steel, shipbuilding, and construction.
presiding officer of the House of Representatives
Speaker of the house
House Majority Leader's duties:
varies depending upon the style and power of the Speaker of the House. Typically, the Speaker does not participate in debate and rarely votes on the floor. In some cases, Majority Leaders have been more influential than the Speaker; notably Tom DeLay who was more prominent than Speaker Dennis Hastert. In addition, Speaker Newt Gingrich delegated to Dick Armey an unprecedented level of authority over scheduling legislation on the House floor.[2]
Majority Whip
A whip in the United States House of Representatives manages his or her party's legislative program on the House floor. The Whip keeps track of all legislation and ensures that all party members are present when important measures are to be voted upon.
The Norman Conquest
Invasion and occupation of the Norman armies leading to the crowning of the Duke William II of Normandy as King of England
Magna Carta
was the first document forced onto a King of England by a group of his subjects, the feudal barons, in an attempt to limit his powers by law and protect their privileges. It was preceded and directly influenced by the Charter of Liberties in 1100, in which King Henry I had specified particular areas wherein his powers would be limited.
The Treaty of Versailles
One of the treaties at the end of WWI. Ended the war between Germany and the Allies
What was the voting age according to the original U.S. Constitution
21
Social Security is an example of what type of government economic activity
Direct Assistance
Govt Direct Services examples
national defense, backs research that often leads to the development of new products, conducts space exploration, and runs numerous programs designed to help workers develop workplace skills and find jobs
Secondary Source
which cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources, Text and/or artifacts that are not original, but written from something original (biographies, magazine articles, research papers).
Primary Source
text that tells a first-hand account of an event; original works used when researching (letters, journals)
14th amendment
passed in 1868 it gave Constitutional authority to back the Civil rights act of 1866
Topography
opography specifically involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, and the identification of specific landforms. This is also known as geomorphometry. In modern usage, this involves generation of elevation data in electronic form. It is often considered to include the graphic representation of the landform on a map by a variety of techniques, including contour lines, hypsometric tints, and relief shading.[1][2][3]
Pennsylvania founded by
1681/William Penn (Quaker)
New Netherlands
The Dutch
Rhodes Island founded by
Roger Williams kicked out of Massachuttes Bay Colony for religious views.
ethnography
is a qualitative research design aimed at exploring cultural phenomena
tHINGS introduced to the New World by Europeans
Small pox
Horses
Christianity
Syphilis
Columbus introduced it to Europe after returning from America
What is considered the first permanent British settlement in North America
Jamestown Va May 1607
Plymouth
Surveyed by John Smith- it was from 1620-1690Founded by a group of Separatists and Anglicans, who together later came to be known as the Pilgrims
New York
The province resulted from the surrender of Provincie Nieuw-Nederland by the Dutch Republic to the Kingdom of England in 1664
At which two sites did the first military engagements of The Revolutionary War take place?
Lexington and Concord
Last battle of the revolutionary war
Yorktown -the surrender of Cornwallis Oct 19, 1781
battles of Saratoga
(September 19 and October 7, 1777) conclusively decided the fate of British General John Burgoyne's army in the American War of Independence and are generally regarded as a turning point in the war.
The Siege of Boston
The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 - March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War, in which New England militiamen—who later became part of the Continental Army—surrounded the town of Boston, Massachusetts, to prevent movement by the British Army garrisoned within. After eleven months of siege, the American colonists, led by George Washington, forced the British to withdraw by sea.
The Battle of Trenton
took place on December 26, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, after General George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River north of Trenton, New Jersey. The hazardous crossing in adverse weather made it possible for Washington to lead the main body of the Continental Army against Hessian soldiers garrisoned at Trenton. After a brief battle, nearly the entire Hessian force was captured, with negligible losses to the Americans. The battle significantly boosted the Continental Army's flagging morale, and inspired reenlistments.
battle of Bunker Hill
took place on June 17, 1775, After two assaults on the colonial lines were repulsed with significant British casualties, the British finally captured the positions on the third assault While the result was a victory for the British, they suffered heavy losses: over 800 wounded and 226 killed, including a notably large number of officers.
Burning of Norfolk
January 1, 1776 British had superior forces and were shelling Norfolk. The Americans fought the landing parties but did not try to stop the fires and proceeded to burn the city to the ground to prevent the British from gaining its use.
Federalist
The party was formed by Alexander Hamilton, who, during George Washington's first term, built a network of supporters, largely urban bankers and businessmen, to support his fiscal policies. These supporters grew into the Federalist Party committed to a fiscally sound and nationalistic government. The United States' only Federalist president was John Adams; although George Washington was broadly sympathetic to the Federalist program, he remained an independent his entire presidency.
Anti-federalist
Anti-Federalism refers to a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the Constitution of 1787. The previous constitution, called the Articles of Confederation, gave state governments more authority. Led by Patrick Henry of Virginia, Anti-Federalists worried, among other things, that the position of president, then a novelty, might evolve into a monarchy. A book titled "The Anti-Federalist Papers" is a detailed explanation of American Anti-Federalist thought.
Whig party
The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. Considered integral to the Second Party System and operating from the early 1830s to the mid-1850s,[1] the party was formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. In particular, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism. This name was chosen to echo the American Whigs of 1776, who fought for independence, and because "Whig" was then a widely recognized label of choice for people who identified as opposing tyranny.[2] The Whig Party counted among its members such national political luminaries as Daniel Webster, William Henry Harrison, and their preeminent leader, Henry Clay of Kentucky. In addition to Harrison, the Whig Party also nominated war hero generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. Abraham Lincoln was the chief Whig leader in frontier Illinois.
Democratic Party origins
evolved from Anti-Federalist factions that opposed the fiscal policies of Alexander Hamilton in the early 1790s. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison organized these factions into the Democratic-Republican Party. The party favored states' rights and strict adherence to the Constitution; it opposed a national bank and wealthy, moneyed interests. The Democratic-Republican Party ascended to power in the election of 1800.
Thomas Jefferson
Declaration of Independence (1776) and the third President of the United States (1801-1809). oversaw the purchase of the vast Louisiana Territory from France (1803), and sent the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806) to explore the new west Formed the Republican-Democratic party with James Madison
James Madison
4th president "Father of the Constitution" for being instrumental in the drafting of the United States Constitution and as the key champion and author of the United States Bill of Rights after the failure of diplomatic protests and a trade embargo against Great Britain, he led the nation into the War of 1812. He was responding to British encroachments on American honor and rights; in addition, he wanted to end the influence of the British among their Indian allies, whose resistance blocked United States settlement in the Midwest around the Great Lakes. Madison found the war to be an administrative nightmare, as the United States had neither a strong army nor financial system; as a result, he afterward supported a stronger national government and a strong military, as well as the national bank, which he had long opposed.
John Quincy Adams
Sixth President Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812. As president, he sought to modernize the American economy and promoted education. Adams enacted a part of his agenda and paid off much of the national debt
John Adams
First VP and 2nd President Assisted Jefferson in writing the Declaraion, Federalist signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts, and built up the army and navy especially in the face of an undeclared naval war (called the "Quasi-War") with France, 1798-1800. The major accomplishment of his presidency was his peaceful resolution of the conflict in the face of Hamilton's opposition.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Singed by John Adams during the French Revolution- Naturalization Act, Alien Act, Alien Enemies Act, Sedition Act Designed to stop the slide to anarchy
Naturalization Act,
Changed the time requirement from 5 to 14 years
Alien Act
authorized the president to deport any resident alien considered "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States." It was activated June 25, 1798, with a two year expiration date.
Alien Enemies Act
authorized the president to apprehend and deport resident aliens if their home countries were at war with the United States of America. Enacted July 6, 1798, and providing no sunset provision, the act remains intact today as 50 U.S.C. §§ 21-24. At the time, war was considered likely between the U.S. and France.
Sedition Act
made it a crime to publish "false, scandalous, and malicious writing" against the government or certain officials. It was enacted July 14, 1798, with an expiration date of March 3, 1801 (the day before Adams' presidential term was to end).
The Civil War came to a close when
General Lee surrendered at the battle of Appomattox Court House after fleeing from the Confederate capitol of Richmond VA
The Battle of Gettysburg
was fought July 1-3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. It was the battle with the largest number of casualties in the American Civil War[7] and is often described as the war's turning point.[8] Union Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade's Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lee's invasion of the North.
The Battle of Fort Sumter
was the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter, near Charleston, South Carolina, that started the American Civil War. Confederate General Beurguard bombarded fort sumpter for 34 hours until the north evacuated
The Battle of Chancellorsville
Chancellorsville is known as Lee's "perfect battle" because his risky decision to divide his army in the presence of a much larger enemy force resulted in a significant Confederate victory. The victory, a product of Lee's audacity and Hooker's timid decision making, was tempered by heavy casualties and the mortal wounding of Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson to friendly fire, a loss that Lee likened to "losing my right arm."
The National Road
In 1811, the federal government funded construction of the National road aimed at western expansion The approximately 620-mile (1,000 km) long National Road provided a connection between the Potomac and Ohio Rivers and a gateway to the West for thousands of settlers.
Transcontinental Railroad
known originally as the "Pacific Railroad" and later as the "Overland Route") was a railroad line built in the United States of America between 1863 and 1869 by the Central Pacific Railroad of California and the Union Pacific Railroad t
Panama Canal
48 miles Work on the canal, which began in 1881, was completed in 1914,
The Appalachian Trail
a marked hiking trail in the eastern United States extending between Springer Mountain in Georgia and Mount Katahdin in Maine.[1] The precise length of the trail changes over time as trails are modified or added. The total length is approximately 2,200 miles (3,500 km)[a] long.
The Pecora Commission
The Pecora Investigation was an inquiry begun on March 4, 1932 by the United States Senate Committee on Banking and Currency to investigate the causes of the Wall Street Crash of 1929. The name refers to the fourth and final chief counsel for the investigation
The 19th Amendment
prohibits any United States citizen to be denied the right to vote based on sex. It was ratified on August 18, 1920.
The Third Amendment
It prohibits, in peacetime or wartime, the quartering of soldiers in private homes without the owner's consent.
The Second Amendment
protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms.
The first amendment
The amendment prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble or prohibiting the petitioning for a governmental redress of grievances.
The fourth Amendment
guards against unreasonable searches and seizures, along with requiring any warrant to be judicially sanctioned and supported by probable cause. It was adopted as a response to the abuse of the writ of assistance, which is a type of general search warrant, in the American Revolution. Search and seizure (including arrest) should be limited in scope according to specific information supplied to the issuing court, usually by a law enforcement officer, who has sworn by it.
The fifth amendment
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation
The sixth Amendment
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.
The seventh Amendment
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
The eight Amendment
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
The Ninth Amendment
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
The Tenth Amendment
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
The eleventh Amendment
The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.
The Twelfth Amendment
vides the procedure for electing the President and Vice President. It replaced Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, which provided the original procedure by which the Electoral College functioned. Problems with the original procedure arose in the elections of 1796 and 1800. The Twelfth Amendment was proposed by the Congress on December 9, 1803, and was ratified by the required number of state legislatures on June 15, 1804.
The Thirteenth Amendment
outlaws slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. It was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, by the House on January 31, 1865, and adopted on December 6, 1865. On December 18, Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaimed it to have been adopted. It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted after the American Civil War.
The fifteenth Amendment
prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" (for example, slavery). It was ratified on February 3, 1870.

The Fifteenth Amendment is one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
The Fourteenth Amendment
Its Citizenship Clause provides a broad definition of citizenship that overruled the Supreme Court's ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) that had held that black people could not be citizens of the United States
The sixteenth Amendment
allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on Census results. This amendment exempted income taxes from the constitutional requirements regarding direct taxes, after income taxes on rents, dividends, and interest were ruled to be direct taxes in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. (1895). It was ratified on February 3, 1913.
The seventeenth Amendment
established direct election of United States Senators by popular vote. The amendment supersedes Article I, § 3, Clauses 1 and 2 of the Constitution, under which senators were elected by state legislatures.
The eighteenth Amendment
established prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States. The separate Volstead Act set down methods of enforcing the Eighteenth Amendment, and defined which "intoxicating liquors" were prohibited, and which were excluded from prohibition
The twentieth Amendment
establishes the beginning and ending of the terms of the elected federal offices. It also deals with scenarios in which there is no President-elect.
The twenty first amendment
repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition on alcohol on January 17, 1920. The Twenty-first amendment was ratified on December 5, 1933. It is unique among the 27 Amendments of the U.S. Constitution for being the only one to repeal a previous Amendment, and for being the only one to have been ratified by the method of the state ratifying convention.
The Twenty second Amendment
sets a term limit for election to the office of President of the United States. The Congress passed the amendment on March 21, 1947. It was ratified by the requisite number of states on February 27, 1951
The Twenty third Amendment
permits citizens in the District of Columbia to vote for Electors for President and Vice President. The amendment was proposed by Congress on June 17, 1960,
The Twenty fourth Amendment
prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. The amendment was proposed by Congress to the states on August 27, 1962, and was ratified by the states on January 23, 1964.
The Twenty fifth Amendment
deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
The Twenty sixth Amendment
barred the states or federal government from setting a voting age higher than eighteen. It was adopted in response to student activism against the Vietnam War and to partially overrule the Supreme Court's decision in Oregon v. Mitchell. It was adopted on July 1, 1971.
The Twenty seventh Amendment
prohibits any law that increases or decreases the salary of members of the Congress from taking effect until the start of the next set of terms of office for Representatives. It is the most recent amendment to the United States Constitution. It was submitted to the states for ratification in 1789, but was not adopted until 1992.
The establishment of the United Nations
April 25th 1945
Korean War
25 June 1950 - 27 July 1953
38Th Parallel
Space Race
1957 to 1975
Cold war
often dated from 1945-1991, was a sustained state of political and military tension between powers in the Western world, dominated by the United States with NATO and other allies; versus powers in the Eastern world, dominated by the Soviet Union with the Warsaw Pact and other allies.
Patrick Henry
led the opposition to the Stamp Act of 1765 and is remembered for his "Give me Liberty, or give me Death!" speech.
John Locke
widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism,[2][3][4] was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory.
topographical map
characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines in modern mapping, but historically using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features.
abolitionist
person who believed slavery should be outlawed
allied powers
Britain, France, Soviet Union, United States Canada WWII
Allies
Britian, France, Russia, Belgium, United States, Canada WWI
annexation
the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation
armistice
an agreement between two armies to stop fighting; a truce
astrolabe
an instrument that measures the distance between the sun or stars and the horizon
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, and Japan during WWII
basin
a low-lying area surrounded by higher land
bilingual
having two official langauges
boomtown
a town offering many chances to make money and filled with people just arriving
cabinet
a group appointed by the president to help govern the country
Canadian shield
a rock formation that covers nearly half of Canada
capitalism
an economic system that allows people to choose their work and to own farms, factories, and other businesses
carpet bagger
a word southerners used to describe northerners that came down after the civil war
casualties
people who are killed, wounded, captured, or missing in a war
cattle trail
A route from the open range to a twon with a railroad, where cattle could be shipped east.
cause and effect relationship
relationship in which changes in one variable produce changes in another variable
Central Powers
Italy, Germany, and Austria/Hungary WWI
charter
a written agreement giving someone the right to establish a colony
circumnavigate
to sail completely around the world
civilization
a culture with cities, a government, and many different jobs
cold war
when two companies are almost at war but not actually fighting
Colombian Exchange
the transfer of peoples, plants, and animals across the Atlantic ocean after Columbus's first trip to the Americas
committees of correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
communism
a system in which the government owns most businesses and often decides where people can live and work
conquistador
a Spanish soldier in the 16th century who helped conquer the natives civilizations of Central and South America
contour map
a map showing heights at regular intervals above sea level by means of contour lines
convention
a meeting of representatives to accomplish a specific goal
cosmonaut
Russian astronaut
culture
A way of life shared by a group of people
D-Day
6-6-1944 the day the allied powers began their invasion of France
degree
a unit of measurement that is 1/360 of the surface of the earth
delegate
one person chosen to speak or act for a number of people
democracy
a government in which the people make political decisions by voting and the majority rules
developing nation
a nation without enough food, jobs, and other resources for the people who live there
diplomat
a person sent by his or her government to tyalk with other governments
dissenter
a person who refuses to go along with what his leaders believe
draft
a system of choosing people and forcing them to serve in the militatry
dry farming
method of farming used in dry regions in which a field is left un-planted for a year so soil can store water and have enough moisture for a crop to grow the next season
duty
a tax imposed by a government on goods brought into a country
emancipation
freeing someone from the control of another
emperor
a man who rules different groups of people throughout a large area
empire
a variety of territories and groups of people controlled by one government
executive branch
part of the government that carries out the laws and oversees the government
fall line
a line connecting waterfalls up and down the east coast that marks the place where the land drops
federal system
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
49er
a person who went looking for gold in 1849
freedmen
African Americans who had been enslaved before the end of the civil war
freedom riders
black and white people who protested segregation by riding in the white only section of buses and bus stations
French Canadian Separtists
French Canadian who believe the providence of Quebec should be an independent nation
frontier
An area still in a natural state that settlers have just started moving into.
geographer
a person who studies the earth and its features
glacier
a mass of ice that moves slowly over land
Grange
an organization designed to help farmers financially
hacienda
a plantation or large ranch owned by Spanish colonists
Holocaust
the mass murder by the nazi's of 11 million people
holy experiment
a term used by William Penn to describe Pennsylvania colony because it was governed according to Quaker beleifs
home front
All of the people who are not fighting but who live in a country at war.
homestead
frontier land claimed by a settler
house of burgesses
the law making branch of virginia's government
immunity
the ability to resist getting sick from a disease
impeach
for congress to accuse the president of being unfit to hold office
impressment
the act of seizing people and forcing them in to military service
indentured servant
a person who has agreed to work for a certain number of years in return for passage to America, food clothing and shelter
industry
business that makes a product or service that can be sold to other people
inflation
when the items people want to buy costs more and the money they have to buy them with is worth less
infrastructure
a country's system of transportation and communication
injustice
siomething pone person does to another that is wrong
intervention
where one country involves itself with events inside another
invest
to put money into a business with the hopes of earning a profit
iron curtain
the line that divided the democratic countries of western europe from the communist countries of the easten block
irrigation
the process of moving water in order to grow crops in dry land
Islam
a religion based on the belief that there is only one god and that Muhammad was his most important prophet
Judicial Branch
The part of the government that resolves disputes about the constitution and interprets the laws
landform
a physical feature of the earths surface, such as mountain or valley
legend
story that is told over and over again by many generations
legaslative branch
the part of government that makes the laws, the house of representatives and the senate
levee
a long hill of dirt or stone used to repel flood waters
loyalist
an American colonist that remained loyal to England
magistrate
a political leader that who made laws in a puritan village
mass production
the making of goods in large quantities using interchangeable parts in a production line
mechanization
the use of machines to make products that people once made by hand
meetinghouse
the building in a purtitan village where people gathered to discuss religion and government
mercenary
a person who fights in a foreign war just for money
mesoamerica
The southern part of north america including central america
mestizo
a child or descendant of a Spanish colonist and a native American
Middle passage
The voyage enslaved africans made against their will from Africa to Americas
migrant worker
a person who moves from place to pace looking for work particularly farm work
migrate
to move from one area to another area
militia
an army made up of ordinary citizens instead of a professional soldiers
mineral
a substance that can be mined from the earth and sold or traded
minute
a unit of measurement that is one 60th of a degree
Mission
a settlement of missionaries
mobilize
for a country to prepare for war
monopoly
the control by one company of all of one kind of business
muckraker
a newspaper reporter that wrote about thingsa businesses and governments were doing wrong
natural resource
anything found in nature that people can use
navigation
the science of palnning and controlling the direction of a ship
nonviolent protest
a method of peaceful protest by peoplepeople fighting unfairlaws by refusing to obey them
northwest passage
a water route through North America that would allow europeans to sail west to Asia
oral history
an interview of a historic event with someone who actually experienced it
overseer
a man on plantations in the south who was in charge of the enslaved people working the fields
paraphase
repeating what someone wrote or said without using ther exact words
parliment
the group of representatives in britian that make laws
pass
a break or opening that makes it easier to travel across a mountain
patroon
a wealthy man who was given land in dutch colonies in exchange fro bringing settlers to north america
pelt
an animal skin with hair or fur still onit
pennisula
a piece of land that sticks out into the water but remains connected to land by one side
petrodollar
money earned by selling oil to other countries
Peidmont
a region of rolling hills east of the Appalchain mountains
pilgrim
a person who travels to a sacred place
pioneer
one of the first persons to travel into a unknown territory
plantation
a large farm where crops are grown and the people who work on it tend to live there
plateau
a high flat area that rises above the nearby land, often like a table top
pogrom
an organized attack on a group, particulary on jews in eastern europe
political party
a group of people with similar views who work together to gain power in government
pony express
a system for moving mail rapidly that was used in the frontier areas across the united states
population density
the number of people living in a certain area
population map
a map that shows the population density
populist party
political party formed in the 1890s that tried to help farmers
post road
a route used to deliver mail
precedent
a past decision that is used as a model for later decisions
presidio
Spanish Forts throughout the midwest
privateer
the captain of an armed privately owned ship whom the govt has given permission to attack enemy ships
proclamation
any official statement
progressive
a political reformer in the early 20th century
propoganda
information chosen to change peoples opinions
province
an area within its own government much like a state within the US
pueblo
a community of native American groups living in the Southwest
Puritan
A protestant during the 16th 17th century who wanted to change the church of england
Radical Republicans
Congressmen around the civil war that beleived the federal govt should do everything it could to protect the rights of the African Americans
Reconstruction
A plan to rebuild the south after the civial war
redistribute
to divide and sell property
region
an area with certain characteristics that set it apart from other regions
religious persecution
keeping people from worshiping god the way they choose
religious toleratition
allowing people to worship god they way they feel is right
Renaissance
the period between the 14th and 16th century when the europeans made many advances in art literature and science
Republic
a government in which people elect representatives to represent them
rural
coming from or belonging to the country side
saga
Icelandic legends about things that happened in the past
scalawag
namew given to white southrners that supported the union
Separatists
Puritans that wanted to leave the Church of England
settlement
a small group of people living in the frontier region
settlement house
a place built to help poor people in the US cities
sharecropping
a system in which land owners rented out property for a share of the crops
Sodbusters
name given to Great Plains farmers because they had to break through so much thick soil, called sod, in order to farm
stock
a share of a company
stock market
a place where people buy and sell shares in a company
subsistence
a word used to describe farmers who raised just enough to feed themselves and their families
suffrage
the right to vote
symbol
something that stands for something else
tariff
tax charged on goods brought in to a country
telegraph
a way of communicating that sends electrical current over wires
temperance
the decision to drink little alchol or none at all
tenement
a run down apartment building in a city
territory
an area of land that is ruled by a government the frontier before statehood
tidewater
coastal area of south with rivers that rise and fall with tides
total war
a strategy in which an army destroys factories, railroads, farms and cites to keep the enemy from restocking and make the civilians tire of the war
treason
a revolt against ones own government
trench warfare
a war fought froom ditches dug in the ground
triangular trade
trade between Africa, Europe, and North America
trustee
a person who is responsible for individuals, organization, or money
underground railroad
a secret network of men and women who led enslaved African Americans to freedom before the civil war
urban
ccoming from or belonging to a city
viceroy
a person sent by a king to rule a colony
wampum
a form of money made by polished shells
yellow journalism
newspaper stories that tells stories in an exagrated or untruthful manner
yeoman
a farmer who owns enough land to provide for his families basic needs
Iceage ends
10,000 years ago
corn cultivation begins
5000 years ago
teothihuacan
Aztecs city called place of the gods. 1st large city in americas 600 AD
900 AD
Mayan cities begin to empty
1170 AD
Aztecs arrive in the valley of Mexico
tikal
One of the largest Maya cities.
Maya populated
Guatemala and Mexico
Aztecs culture
Were warriors, religion was very important to them. Human sacrifice to the goods was practiced. All children were deucated
Tenochtitlan
Aztec's capitol city and religious center