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quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance's composition; properties that do not involve substances changing into another substance
the ability of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction and to form new substances; substance changing into another substance
Classification of Matter
matter is either pure substance or mixture; pure substance is either element or compound; mixture is either homogenous or heterogenous
the smallest unit of a pure substance that has the properties of that substance; no net electrical charge, made of nonmetals
Dalton's Atomic Theory
all matter/elements is/are composed of atoms, all atoms of an element are alike, law of definite composition - simple whole number ratios, atoms cannot be created or destroyed
subatomic particles that surround the nucleus and have negative charge, much less than 1 amu
arrangement of elements according to similarities in their properties; symbol, element name, atomic number, atomic mass; arranged by atomic number, put together by Mendeleev
have high electrical conductivity and a high luster when clean, ductile and malleable, left side of periodic table; form cations, solid at room temperature
Names of Periodic Table
horizontal rows: periods, vertical columns: groups; Group 1A: alkali metals, Group 2A: alkaline earth metals Group B: transition & inner transition metals, Group 7A: halogens, Group 0: noble gases
formula tells the simple ratios of cations to anions, called formula units, formed with a metal, have a metal and nonmetal, form cations to anions
name elements in order they appear in the formula, use prefixes to name how many atoms of each type; ex. carbon dioxide
In metric units:
In SI units:
Factor Labeling Method
use conversion factors and keep track of units, cancel out units along way to convery amounts
measurement including all of the know digits, plus one more digit that is estimated
measure of the quantity of matter present, constant regardless of location, SI unit is kg, everyday unit is g
density of a substance compared to a reference substance (usually water at 4 degrees C)
Models of the Atom
Thomson's Atomic Model- believed that electrons were embedded in positively charged particles; Rutherford's Atomic Model- the atoms is mostly empty space, all of the positive charge and mass is concentrated in the nucleus, the nucleus is composed of protons & neutrons, electrons are distributed around the nucleus and occupy most of the volume, and his model is called the "nuclear model."
qualitative, show the reactants you need to make your product(s), use words instead of chemical symbols
Writing Chemical Equations
use an arrow (means yield) to separate reactants and products, write catalysts over the arrow if they're involved; identify physical states, such as solid (s), liquid (l), gas (g), and aqueous solution (aq)
use coefficients (numbers placed in front of symbols) so that you have the same number of each element in the reactant and product sides
Na + Cl2
one reactanct breaks apart into two or more elements of compounds, energy is usually required
NaCl yields ?
Single Replacement Reaction
K + NaCl
one element replaces another, reactants must be an element and a compund
Na + KCl yields?
Double Replacement Reaction
Fe(OH)3 + NaCl
two things replace each other, reactants must be ionic compunds in aqueous solution
NaOH + FeCl3 yields?
8CO2 + 10H2O
8CO + 10H2O
add oygen, burning normally composed of C, H and maybe O reacted with O
if complete, the products will be CO2 and H20
if incomplete, the products will be CO (possibly C) and H2O
2C4H10 + 13O2 (complete) yields?
2C4H10 + 9O2 (incomplete) yields?
chemical equations that do not indicate the relative amounts of reactants and products in the equation
if you know the number of moles of one substance you can determine the number of moles of all the other substances with a balanced equation
Mass to Mass Calculations
from the mass of a product or reactant the mass of any other reactant or product can be calculated
Mole to Gram Conversionss
find the number of grams in one mole of the substance and multiply that by the number of moles you have. Ex.- 3 moles x 2.02g/1mol = 6.06 grams
simplest formula that shows the ratios of the number of atoms of each element in a compound
for H202 it is HO
shows the actual number of each type of atom in a molecule, can be found from molecular mass
measurement of heat into or out of a system for chemical and physical processes, heat released = heat absorbed
heat flowing into a system from its surroundings, positive, q is positive, system gains heat
heat flowing out of a system to it surroundings, negative, q is negative, system loses heat
energy that transfers from one object to another because of a temperature difference between them, represented by q, flows from warmer to colder objects
amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 g of the substance 1 degree C, for water 4.184, lower for metals (shortened name)
Specific Heat Capacity
amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 g of the substance 1 degree C, for water 4.184, lower for metals
Law of Conservation of Energy
in any physical or chemical process energy is neither created nor destroyed
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