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Three components of diffusion of innovations

1. Innovation 2. Diffusion 3. Adoption


an idea, practice, or object perceived as new


The process by which an innovation is communicated and spreads through certain channels over time among the members of a social system


The process by which an individual begins to attempt and use an innovation

What kind of curve describes the diffusion process?

S-shaped curve

Five stages of the diffusion and adoption process

1. Knowledge 2. Persuasion 3. Decision 4. Implementation 5. Confirmation


an individual (or other decision-making unit) is exposed to an innovation's existence and gains some understanding of how it functions


An individual (or other decision-making unit) forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the innovation


An individual (or other decision-making unit) engages in activities that lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation


An individual (or other decision-making unit) puts an innovation into use


An individual (or other decision-making unit) seeks reinforcement of an innovation-decision already made, or reverses a previous decision to adopt or reject the innovation if exposed to conflicting messages about the innovation

Innovation adoption and S-curve

At first, only a few individuals adopt the new idea, then great numbers of individuals accept the innovation, and finally the rate of adoption slackens

Adopter categories

1. Innovators 2. Early Adopters 3. Early majority 4. Late majority 5. Laggards

Percentage of Innovators



Technological enthusiasts; shorter adoption period; willing to try new products; risk takers; financial resources; tend to form cliques or reference groups that exist outside a local community

Percentage of early adopters


Early adopters

Visionaries who are respected for trying new innovations; Opinion leaders; well connected to the local community; motivated to preserve the respect; seek greater knowledge of innovations; greater exposure to mass media channels

Percentage of Early majority


Early majority

pragmatists; prefer to deliberate before the decision; careful consumers who tend to avoid risk; rely on recommendations from others who have experience with the product; legitimize an innovation

Percentage of Late majority


Late majority

skeptic; conservative and cautious even after others embrace the innovation; wait until the rest of the community has adopted it first; May adopt the innovation, though unwillingly - peer pressure may be a motivator and economy necessity

percentage of laggards



adopt only when certain the technology will not fail, or when forced to change; innovation decision process is lengthy; tied to the past; suspicious of innovations; limited resources; when adopted the innovation has become outdated

critical mass

point on the s-curve where process takes off and it probably is irreversible

saturation level

point on s-curve, where virtually everyone who is going to adopt the innovation has done so

Summary of innovation adoption curve

Starts with an innovator; spreads slowly at first, then picks up speed; when the number of adopters reaches a critical mass the process takes off and is probably irreversible; as more and more people talk about the innovation, it has a life of its own; eventually it reaches a saturation level, where virtually everyone who is going to adopt the innovation has done so (at the top)

percentage at critical mass

5% - 15%

Three leading causes of death

1. poor physical health/eating 2. alcohol consumption 3. smoking

U.S. smoking trends by gender

both genders smoking has declined over the years but each year more men then women are smoking

U.S. smoking trends by education

correlation between educational obtainment and smoking; less education - the more likely you are to smoke

Cigarette advertising

Banned on television and radio in 1971

Cigarette advertising in other types of media

newspapers, magazines, billboards, and event promotion

Master settlement agreement

concerning ads targeting youth; restriction on the size of billboards; no merchandise with brand-name logos; no payment for product placement; no targeting youth

U.S. tobacco industry marketing

much of the increase was in categories effective at reaching kids

The Center for Disease Control finding

The center for disease control found that 86% of underage smokers use one of the three most advertised brand (marlboro, camel, or newport)

Effects of Smoking in the Media

80% of the teenage smokers consider advertising an important factor; adolescent smokers are more likely than nonsmokers to name actors who smoked either on or off screen as their favorite stars

Smoking in Movies and Youth Smoking

correlation between smoking in films and kids smoking

Public Communication campaigns

purposive attempts to inform, persuade, or motivate attitude or behavior changes through the mass media; it usually has a relatively well-defined large audience and generally is of non-commercial benefits to the individuals or society at large

Paisley's Five Concepts of Communication Campaigns

1. The objectives of the campaign or the media methods used 2. The strategy used to facilitate change 3. The potential benefits resulting from proposed change 4. The stakeholders 5. Public perceptions about the campaign stakeholder


the source of the campaign message must be regarded to be entitled or to have the right to offer the messages and try to change the behaviors of the public

first party entitlement

people who are directly affected by an issue

second party entitlement

a group is not directly impacted but concerned about the well-being of others and society, take part in altruistic actions

Benefits of campaigns

emphasize positive effects from complying with the behaviors promoted; emphasize negative from non-compliance

Shortcomings of campaigns

victim blaming; scare tactics can have adverse effects

health campaign

targets society

media advocacy

targets policy makers

Persuasion Models

1. Risk learning 2. Stereotype priming

risk learning

new information about the health risks and the behaviors that will minimize those risks; based on protection motivation theory; work to motivate behaviors that promote and protect good health; give knowledge where it is lacking; show severe consequences (disease outcome) of engaging in the behavior; show how easy it is to contract the disease; show how protective behaviors can reduce chances for disease; show effectiveness when engaging in protective behavior (self-efficacy)

stereotype priming

salient preexisting social stereotypes about people who do or do not behave as advocated; message must reflect recipients prior stereotypes; the stereotypes that we posses regarding the personality traits of groups of people to a large extent govern our behavior; in this view, it is sometimes useful to capitalize on and reinforce preexisting stereotypes in order to encourage health and or discourage unhealthy behaviors


Body Mass Index; weight in kg/(height in meters)^2

underweight body mass

< 18.5

normal body mass

between 18.5 - 24.9

obesity body mass

30 <

Adult obesity (20 yrs and older)

increased from 13.3-34.4% from 1960-2006

Advertising food for children

way more food ads seen per year than healthy PSAs

Effects on food and nutrition habits

1. Children's nutrition beliefs 2. Physical inactivity and obesity 3. Thin-Body Ideal and Eating Disorder

Children's nutrition beliefs

Greater TV and commercial exposure lead to poorer nutrition knowledge, greater preference for unhealthy foods, greater request for parents to buy food advertised on TV and less fruit, vegetable, and juice intake

Physical inactivity and obesity

Both children and adults; time displacement

Time displacement

adult men and women who watch more than three hours of TV per day: are twice as likely to be obese as men and women who watch less than one hour per day

Exposure to thin media messages

Internalization of the thin-ideal; body dissatisfaction; eating disorder symptoms

Percentage of adults who drunk alcohol


Percentage of adult binge drinking

About 1 in 3 adult drinkers report past-month binge drinking; 15.8% of US adults

Percentage of adult heavy drinking

4.8% of US adults reported heavy drinking in the past 30 days

Gender differences in drinking

Women: 1+ drink per day
Men: 2+ drinks per day

Effects of alcohol in the Media

1. Awareness of alcohol ads 2. Exposure to advertising and promotional merchandise

Awareness of alcohol ads

positive beliefs about drinking and intention to drink

Exposure to advertising and promotional merchandise

predictive of drinking behavior among adolescents

Cultural Indicators Project

Began as a media violence research project and has developed into a three pronged research project: institutional analysis, message system analysis, and cultivation analysis

Institutional analysis

production, management, and distribution of media messages

Message system analysis

Media content analysis - TV world and real world

Cultivation analysis

Effects of media use on beliefs, values, and other consequences

George Gerbner

Stated that the television set has become a key member of the family and it is the one that tells stories most of the time

Electronic Storyteller video

Media impacts the way we view the world. Even if we are light viewers, the people we interact with may not be

Storytelling and humanity

Stories we tell and stories we hear have a lot to do with what we think about the world, that stay with us for a lifetime; Humans live in a world erected by the things they hear

Three types of stories

1. Show how things are 2. How things work 3. what to do about them ; three kinds woven together in an invisible web called culture


stories and messages that govern society

First major change

The printing press began the process of putting story telling on an assembly line

Second major change

Electronic evolution: TV; children are born into a culture environment where TV is on more than seven hours a day. Children are now taught by TV


values that TV enforces happen all through the day and your life


before and after. What has changed? Has my message been effective?

Heavy viewers vs. Light viewers

Heavy viewers see things differently from the light viewers; Difference created by the story telling aspect of TV

The effect of TV violence on violent behavior

negligible; images of violence tell a story about victims and violent people

Cultivation of values, beliefs, and world views

the media acts as a source of information in society

Casting and fate

Portrayal of social and demographic groups; Effects on role definition and understanding of social problems

Portrayal of social and demographic groups

television is a source of role definition in society

Likeliness to vote for a qualified woman for president

heavy viewers are less likely, light viewers are more likely

Effects on role definition and understanding of social problems

Tv presents skewed occupational picture; when the poor are connected with crime, drugs, and violence

Depiction of the elderly

Women become less visible in the media as they age; the women who remain often play villains and evil roles; older men are more likely to be in romantic roles than older women

African American Representation: news vs. television

When African Americans appear on TV they are respected, when they appear in the news they are connected with negative characteristics - bifurcated images

Bifurcated Images

give the idea that black/inner-city problems to do not exist anymore

Implications of the difference between African American Representation in the news and on TV

Heavy viewers support segregation because whites an blacks are usually shown as segregated on TV; heavy viewers believe that racism is something that we once had but now is over because blacks are shown as equal to whites on TV

Methods of Cultivation Analysis

1. Survey-based research 2. Independent variables 3. Dependent variables

Independent variables in cultivation analysis

the amount of time respondents spend watching TV on an average day; Heavy viewers (four or more); light viewers (less than 2); medium viewers (2-4)

Dependent variables in cultivation analysis

attitudes, perceptions, policy preferences, and values; informed by message system analysis

cultivation differential

the difference between heavy and light TV viewers


dominant sets of attitudes, beliefs, values, and practices that exist within cultures


heavy television viewers tend to cultivate similar mainstream views regardless of their individual differences; Television overrides differences that stem from cultural, political, regional, and class-based distinctions - the blending of attitudes into the TV mainstream

Findings: TV violence and cultivation

1. Fear of victimization 2. Mistrust 3. policy support

fear of victimization

chances of involvement with violent crime - heavy viewers are more afraid of walking alone at night because of what they see on television


Heavy viewers express a greater sense of insecurity than do light viewers

policy support

heavy viewers are more likely to support repressive governmental policies if it is presented as enhancing their security

Political Orientation in TV

Television seeks large heterogeneous audiences; tv messages are designed to disturb as few as possible; take the middle road

Heavy viewers political orientation

Heavy viewers are substantially more likely to label themselves as being moderate rather than either liberal or conservative

Issue Position

the mainstream does not mean the middle of the road on specific political issues, including racial segregation, homosexuality, abortion, and minority rights; cultivating issue positions that are closer to the right

Stance on economic issues

Cultivating populist stance on economic issues; more social services, but less taxes

Criticisms of cultivation theory

1.patterns of media use vs. Total time spent with television 2. Causality 3. Conditional effects


correlation does not prove causation; a third variable could explain the relationship between heavy TV viewing and outcomes such as fear of victimization; spurious

Conditional effects

cultivation phenomena could occur differently to different people, depending on their demographic, social, and other characteristics


the cultivation effect becomes amplified when television content
"resonates" with real-life experiences; when real-world events support the distorted image of reality shown on television

gender differences in cultivation effect

Heavy viewers make women more afraid


business activities that direct the exchange of ideas, goods, and services between producers and consumers

Marketing Mix

a group of elements that are components of marketing

Four p's of marketing

1. product 2. place 3. price 4. promotion


personal sales; sales promotion; public relations; direct marketing; advertising

Target definition

segmentation; there is a primary target and a secondary target

Media planning

placing the message before the target audience

advertising effects

recognition and recall of brands; persuasion; behavior effects: trial, repeat, purchase

Creative side of advertising

Relevance, originality, impact

Evelands Five Attributes

attributes of both new media and old media; 1. interactivity 2. structure 3. channel 4. textuality 5. content


refers to the extent to which a person is actually able to interact with the technology in a meaningful way


refers to the extent to which a medium is linear or non-linear; newspaper is linear and internet article is non-linear


refers to whether information is presented visually, acoustically, or in both channels at once


refers to how much of the information in a medium is communicated in text form


refers to the actual information conveyed by the medium, such as violence, sex, persuasive messages, or information

Point of purchase (tobacco)

Inside advertisement vs. outside advertisements by tobacco companies; on average, 14-27 ads inside and 3.6-7.5 outsides the store

Tobacco prevention spending

2006: 12.5 billion dollars is spent on tobacco marketing - .518 spent on tobacco prevention
2011: 25.3 billion in revenue

"Mean World"

an example of mainstreaming; people believing that the world is a much more dangerous place then it is; with heavy viewers the difference in education matters less - they believe they are more likely to be victims of crimes over anyone else

Carnegie Melon Study - HomeNet

Longitudinal study; Internet users had greater levels of depression and loneliness

activity displacement effect

limited time to engage in various activities

displace strong social ties

online relationships are more superficial, therefore you have weaker ties

Critiques of Carnegie Melon Study

No control group; no randomly selected sample; argued causality using survey data - problem because the survey can only show us a correlation which can't argue causation


make the message important to the audience


Novel, Fresh, unexpected


stopping power, memorability attitude, purchase, etc.

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