134 terms

Comm 102 Test 4

Three components of diffusion of innovations
1. Innovation 2. Diffusion 3. Adoption
an idea, practice, or object perceived as new
The process by which an innovation is communicated and spreads through certain channels over time among the members of a social system
The process by which an individual begins to attempt and use an innovation
What kind of curve describes the diffusion process?
S-shaped curve
Five stages of the diffusion and adoption process
1. Knowledge 2. Persuasion 3. Decision 4. Implementation 5. Confirmation
an individual (or other decision-making unit) is exposed to an innovation's existence and gains some understanding of how it functions
An individual (or other decision-making unit) forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the innovation
An individual (or other decision-making unit) engages in activities that lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation
An individual (or other decision-making unit) puts an innovation into use
An individual (or other decision-making unit) seeks reinforcement of an innovation-decision already made, or reverses a previous decision to adopt or reject the innovation if exposed to conflicting messages about the innovation
Innovation adoption and S-curve
At first, only a few individuals adopt the new idea, then great numbers of individuals accept the innovation, and finally the rate of adoption slackens
Adopter categories
1. Innovators 2. Early Adopters 3. Early majority 4. Late majority 5. Laggards
Percentage of Innovators
Technological enthusiasts; shorter adoption period; willing to try new products; risk takers; financial resources; tend to form cliques or reference groups that exist outside a local community
Percentage of early adopters
Early adopters
Visionaries who are respected for trying new innovations; Opinion leaders; well connected to the local community; motivated to preserve the respect; seek greater knowledge of innovations; greater exposure to mass media channels
Percentage of Early majority
Early majority
pragmatists; prefer to deliberate before the decision; careful consumers who tend to avoid risk; rely on recommendations from others who have experience with the product; legitimize an innovation
Percentage of Late majority
Late majority
skeptic; conservative and cautious even after others embrace the innovation; wait until the rest of the community has adopted it first; May adopt the innovation, though unwillingly - peer pressure may be a motivator and economy necessity
percentage of laggards
adopt only when certain the technology will not fail, or when forced to change; innovation decision process is lengthy; tied to the past; suspicious of innovations; limited resources; when adopted the innovation has become outdated
critical mass
point on the s-curve where process takes off and it probably is irreversible
saturation level
point on s-curve, where virtually everyone who is going to adopt the innovation has done so
Summary of innovation adoption curve
Starts with an innovator; spreads slowly at first, then picks up speed; when the number of adopters reaches a critical mass the process takes off and is probably irreversible; as more and more people talk about the innovation, it has a life of its own; eventually it reaches a saturation level, where virtually everyone who is going to adopt the innovation has done so (at the top)
percentage at critical mass
5% - 15%
Three leading causes of death
1. poor physical health/eating 2. alcohol consumption 3. smoking
U.S. smoking trends by gender
both genders smoking has declined over the years but each year more men then women are smoking
U.S. smoking trends by education
correlation between educational obtainment and smoking; less education - the more likely you are to smoke
Cigarette advertising
Banned on television and radio in 1971
Cigarette advertising in other types of media
newspapers, magazines, billboards, and event promotion
Master settlement agreement
concerning ads targeting youth; restriction on the size of billboards; no merchandise with brand-name logos; no payment for product placement; no targeting youth
U.S. tobacco industry marketing
much of the increase was in categories effective at reaching kids
The Center for Disease Control finding
The center for disease control found that 86% of underage smokers use one of the three most advertised brand (marlboro, camel, or newport)
Effects of Smoking in the Media
80% of the teenage smokers consider advertising an important factor; adolescent smokers are more likely than nonsmokers to name actors who smoked either on or off screen as their favorite stars
Smoking in Movies and Youth Smoking
correlation between smoking in films and kids smoking
Public Communication campaigns
purposive attempts to inform, persuade, or motivate attitude or behavior changes through the mass media; it usually has a relatively well-defined large audience and generally is of non-commercial benefits to the individuals or society at large
Paisley's Five Concepts of Communication Campaigns
1. The objectives of the campaign or the media methods used 2. The strategy used to facilitate change 3. The potential benefits resulting from proposed change 4. The stakeholders 5. Public perceptions about the campaign stakeholder
the source of the campaign message must be regarded to be entitled or to have the right to offer the messages and try to change the behaviors of the public
first party entitlement
people who are directly affected by an issue
second party entitlement
a group is not directly impacted but concerned about the well-being of others and society, take part in altruistic actions
Benefits of campaigns
emphasize positive effects from complying with the behaviors promoted; emphasize negative from non-compliance
Shortcomings of campaigns
victim blaming; scare tactics can have adverse effects
health campaign
targets society
media advocacy
targets policy makers
Persuasion Models
1. Risk learning 2. Stereotype priming
risk learning
new information about the health risks and the behaviors that will minimize those risks; based on protection motivation theory; work to motivate behaviors that promote and protect good health; give knowledge where it is lacking; show severe consequences (disease outcome) of engaging in the behavior; show how easy it is to contract the disease; show how protective behaviors can reduce chances for disease; show effectiveness when engaging in protective behavior (self-efficacy)
stereotype priming
salient preexisting social stereotypes about people who do or do not behave as advocated; message must reflect recipients prior stereotypes; the stereotypes that we posses regarding the personality traits of groups of people to a large extent govern our behavior; in this view, it is sometimes useful to capitalize on and reinforce preexisting stereotypes in order to encourage health and or discourage unhealthy behaviors
Body Mass Index; weight in kg/(height in meters)^2
underweight body mass
< 18.5
normal body mass
between 18.5 - 24.9
obesity body mass
30 <
Adult obesity (20 yrs and older)
increased from 13.3-34.4% from 1960-2006
Advertising food for children
way more food ads seen per year than healthy PSAs
Effects on food and nutrition habits
1. Children's nutrition beliefs 2. Physical inactivity and obesity 3. Thin-Body Ideal and Eating Disorder
Children's nutrition beliefs
Greater TV and commercial exposure lead to poorer nutrition knowledge, greater preference for unhealthy foods, greater request for parents to buy food advertised on TV and less fruit, vegetable, and juice intake
Physical inactivity and obesity
Both children and adults; time displacement
Time displacement
adult men and women who watch more than three hours of TV per day: are twice as likely to be obese as men and women who watch less than one hour per day
Exposure to thin media messages
Internalization of the thin-ideal; body dissatisfaction; eating disorder symptoms
Percentage of adults who drunk alcohol
Percentage of adult binge drinking
About 1 in 3 adult drinkers report past-month binge drinking; 15.8% of US adults
Percentage of adult heavy drinking
4.8% of US adults reported heavy drinking in the past 30 days
Gender differences in drinking
Women: 1+ drink per day
Men: 2+ drinks per day
Effects of alcohol in the Media
1. Awareness of alcohol ads 2. Exposure to advertising and promotional merchandise
Awareness of alcohol ads
positive beliefs about drinking and intention to drink
Exposure to advertising and promotional merchandise
predictive of drinking behavior among adolescents
Cultural Indicators Project
Began as a media violence research project and has developed into a three pronged research project: institutional analysis, message system analysis, and cultivation analysis
Institutional analysis
production, management, and distribution of media messages
Message system analysis
Media content analysis - TV world and real world
Cultivation analysis
Effects of media use on beliefs, values, and other consequences
George Gerbner
Stated that the television set has become a key member of the family and it is the one that tells stories most of the time
Electronic Storyteller video
Media impacts the way we view the world. Even if we are light viewers, the people we interact with may not be
Storytelling and humanity
Stories we tell and stories we hear have a lot to do with what we think about the world, that stay with us for a lifetime; Humans live in a world erected by the things they hear
Three types of stories
1. Show how things are 2. How things work 3. what to do about them ; three kinds woven together in an invisible web called culture
stories and messages that govern society
First major change
The printing press began the process of putting story telling on an assembly line
Second major change
Electronic evolution: TV; children are born into a culture environment where TV is on more than seven hours a day. Children are now taught by TV
values that TV enforces happen all through the day and your life
before and after. What has changed? Has my message been effective?
Heavy viewers vs. Light viewers
Heavy viewers see things differently from the light viewers; Difference created by the story telling aspect of TV
The effect of TV violence on violent behavior
negligible; images of violence tell a story about victims and violent people
Cultivation of values, beliefs, and world views
the media acts as a source of information in society
Casting and fate
Portrayal of social and demographic groups; Effects on role definition and understanding of social problems
Portrayal of social and demographic groups
television is a source of role definition in society
Likeliness to vote for a qualified woman for president
heavy viewers are less likely, light viewers are more likely
Effects on role definition and understanding of social problems
Tv presents skewed occupational picture; when the poor are connected with crime, drugs, and violence
Depiction of the elderly
Women become less visible in the media as they age; the women who remain often play villains and evil roles; older men are more likely to be in romantic roles than older women
African American Representation: news vs. television
When African Americans appear on TV they are respected, when they appear in the news they are connected with negative characteristics - bifurcated images
Bifurcated Images
give the idea that black/inner-city problems to do not exist anymore
Implications of the difference between African American Representation in the news and on TV
Heavy viewers support segregation because whites an blacks are usually shown as segregated on TV; heavy viewers believe that racism is something that we once had but now is over because blacks are shown as equal to whites on TV
Methods of Cultivation Analysis
1. Survey-based research 2. Independent variables 3. Dependent variables
Independent variables in cultivation analysis
the amount of time respondents spend watching TV on an average day; Heavy viewers (four or more); light viewers (less than 2); medium viewers (2-4)
Dependent variables in cultivation analysis
attitudes, perceptions, policy preferences, and values; informed by message system analysis
cultivation differential
the difference between heavy and light TV viewers
dominant sets of attitudes, beliefs, values, and practices that exist within cultures
heavy television viewers tend to cultivate similar mainstream views regardless of their individual differences; Television overrides differences that stem from cultural, political, regional, and class-based distinctions - the blending of attitudes into the TV mainstream
Findings: TV violence and cultivation
1. Fear of victimization 2. Mistrust 3. policy support
fear of victimization
chances of involvement with violent crime - heavy viewers are more afraid of walking alone at night because of what they see on television
Heavy viewers express a greater sense of insecurity than do light viewers
policy support
heavy viewers are more likely to support repressive governmental policies if it is presented as enhancing their security
Political Orientation in TV
Television seeks large heterogeneous audiences; tv messages are designed to disturb as few as possible; take the middle road
Heavy viewers political orientation
Heavy viewers are substantially more likely to label themselves as being moderate rather than either liberal or conservative
Issue Position
the mainstream does not mean the middle of the road on specific political issues, including racial segregation, homosexuality, abortion, and minority rights; cultivating issue positions that are closer to the right
Stance on economic issues
Cultivating populist stance on economic issues; more social services, but less taxes
Criticisms of cultivation theory
1.patterns of media use vs. Total time spent with television 2. Causality 3. Conditional effects
correlation does not prove causation; a third variable could explain the relationship between heavy TV viewing and outcomes such as fear of victimization; spurious
Conditional effects
cultivation phenomena could occur differently to different people, depending on their demographic, social, and other characteristics
the cultivation effect becomes amplified when television content
"resonates" with real-life experiences; when real-world events support the distorted image of reality shown on television
gender differences in cultivation effect
Heavy viewers make women more afraid
business activities that direct the exchange of ideas, goods, and services between producers and consumers
Marketing Mix
a group of elements that are components of marketing
Four p's of marketing
1. product 2. place 3. price 4. promotion
personal sales; sales promotion; public relations; direct marketing; advertising
Target definition
segmentation; there is a primary target and a secondary target
Media planning
placing the message before the target audience
advertising effects
recognition and recall of brands; persuasion; behavior effects: trial, repeat, purchase
Creative side of advertising
Relevance, originality, impact
Evelands Five Attributes
attributes of both new media and old media; 1. interactivity 2. structure 3. channel 4. textuality 5. content
refers to the extent to which a person is actually able to interact with the technology in a meaningful way
refers to the extent to which a medium is linear or non-linear; newspaper is linear and internet article is non-linear
refers to whether information is presented visually, acoustically, or in both channels at once
refers to how much of the information in a medium is communicated in text form
refers to the actual information conveyed by the medium, such as violence, sex, persuasive messages, or information
Point of purchase (tobacco)
Inside advertisement vs. outside advertisements by tobacco companies; on average, 14-27 ads inside and 3.6-7.5 outsides the store
Tobacco prevention spending
2006: 12.5 billion dollars is spent on tobacco marketing - .518 spent on tobacco prevention
2011: 25.3 billion in revenue
"Mean World"
an example of mainstreaming; people believing that the world is a much more dangerous place then it is; with heavy viewers the difference in education matters less - they believe they are more likely to be victims of crimes over anyone else
Carnegie Melon Study - HomeNet
Longitudinal study; Internet users had greater levels of depression and loneliness
activity displacement effect
limited time to engage in various activities
displace strong social ties
online relationships are more superficial, therefore you have weaker ties
Critiques of Carnegie Melon Study
No control group; no randomly selected sample; argued causality using survey data - problem because the survey can only show us a correlation which can't argue causation
make the message important to the audience
Novel, Fresh, unexpected
stopping power, memorability attitude, purchase, etc.