Biology: Part One (New Stuff)
Terms in this set (98)
____ do not evolve, _____ evolve
List three different types of evidence we find that shows us evolution has occurred
fossils, vestigial structures, homologous structures
A structure that is still present in an organism but no longer serves a purpose is a ___ structure.
an example of a homologous structure is a ____
human arm, bat wing
example of a vestigial structure ______
Structures that differ in function but have similar internal structure are_?__
Give an example of convergent evolution
fish and whale have similar body shape because they had to move through water
Sometimes unrelated organisms develop structures that are similar in structure and/or function because they have similar ways of life.
A population is a group of organisms that are all the same __?__
____ is the survival and reproduction of the best adapted, not survival of the fittest
Evolution depends on __?___acting on __?___ in a population. (__?__is the process; ___?___ is the mechanism)
natural selection, genetic diversity, evolution, natural selection
Without __?___ a population may not be able to respond to changes in the __?___.
genetic variation, environment
The two main sources of diversity in a population are ___ and ___. Be able to explain briefly how each works.
crossing over in meiosis, random mutations
Genetic change in a population due to random events (not natural selection) is called ____.
When humans create breeds or types of organisms that have certain desired traits, it's called __?__
A theory stating that evolutionary changes take place gradually at a steady pace is called__?__. A theory stating
that organisms stay the same for a long time and then evolve rather quickly is called __?__.
gradualism, punctuated equilibrium
A __?_event occurs when an organism almost goes extinct and then recovers. For a long time after, this
population will have low ___
Give an example of an organism that has done this recently.
bottleneck, diversity, bald eagle
When one common ancestor gives rise to a cluster of different but closely related species, this is called
__?___. Give an example?
adaptive radiation, Darwins finches
the distribution of a particular trait in a population. most individuals cluster around the average trait and relatively few are at extremes or low
bell curve (normal curve)
What type of natural selection . . .
Changes the value of an "average" trait in the whole population?
What type of natural selection . . . Results in two new populations?
What type of natural selection . . . Reduces variation in a trait?
classifying animals is called _____
the largest group is the ____
the 3 domains are:
Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya
name all the kingdoms in the domain bacteria
Domain Eukarya has 4 kingdoms:
Fungi, Protista, Plantae, Animalia
What major structural difference separates the domain Eukarya from the other two domains?
membrane bound internal organelles (nucleus, ER, golgi, mitochondria)
An organism with a true nucleus is called __?__
An organism without a true nucleus is called __?__ What else do they lack besides a nucleus?
prokaryotes, membrane-bound organelles
the only membrane prokaryotes have are _____
What kingdom has organisms that are autotrophic and multicellular?
What kingdom has organisms that can be either unicellular or multicellular, and either heterotrophic or autotrophic?
What TWO kingdoms include organisms that are heterotrophic and multicellular?
What kingdom contains organisms that are unicellular and almost all heterotrophic?
What domain contains all unicellular organisms that specialize in extreme environments?
Which kingdom is the largest in terms of both biomass and probable number of species?
Which group of animals is the largest in terms of both biomass and probable number of species?
The smallest taxonomic group is the __?__
a group of organisms that reproduces together and makes fertile offspring that look like the parents defines ___
In what domain do you find bacteria?
Are bacteria all heterotrophic? If not, name one that is autotrophic.
most, blue-green bacteria
Name three ways in which bacteria are beneficial IN our bodies.
digest food, repel invaders, educate our immune system
Name three ways in which bacteria are beneficial OUTSIDE our bodies (in our environment).
break down dead things, food, contribute to human industries
What threat to our health is associated with overuse of antibiotics? Name three diseases or conditions that are a problem for us right now because of it.
resistant strains of diseases that are difficult to kill, MRSA, salmonella, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis
How can bacteria become resistant to antibiotics so quickly? What is a promising source for new natural (as opposed to lab-manufactured) antibiotics?
they reproduce every 2o minutes, soil, ocean water
Bacteria use rings of DNA called ____ to share genetic material. Is it a type of sexual reproduction?
Bacterial cell walls are made of ____
What breaks down dead material to absorb nutrients, many of the nutrients are not absurd and sink into soil or disperse into the environment where they are available to producers
Bacteria that grow in clusters are called __?__.
Bacteria that grow in pairs are called __?__.
Bacteria that grow in rows are called __?__
Spherical bacteria are called __?__
Rod-shaped bacteria are called __?__
Spiral bacteria are called __?__
Describe briefly how you would test bacteria for antibiotic resistance.
put gel into a petri dish with bacteria, insert paper disk treated with antibiotics, the size of the clear zone around the disk shows if the bacteria is resistant
3 evolutionary trends in animals
1) Segmentation (from non-segmented, like a roundworm, to segmented, like an earthworm); 2) Cephalization (development of a head region where sensory apparatus is concentrated); 3) Development of bilateral symmetry (from asymmetrical like sponges, to radial symmetry like echinoderms, to bilateral symmetry like chordates)
how are blood and sea water similar?
Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to each of our cells, and carries away wastes, in the same way that sea water provides oxygen and nutrients, and carries away wastes, from unicellular organisms living in the sea millions of years ago.
_____ captures oxygen and carries it through the blood, releasing it to the cells in the capillaries.
What metal atom is at the center of hemoglobin?
What causes a heart attack?
blockage of the coronary arteries by fatty deposits (such as cholesterol)
How does the diaphragm function?
When the diaphragm contracts, it increases the size of the chest cavity. This makes pressure lower in the chest than in the air outside, and so air flows into the lungs. When the diaphragm relaxes it springs up and makes the chest cavity smaller, so air is pushed out.
What kind of cell carries oxygen?
Red blood cells
How is carbon dioxide carried in the blood?
dissolved in the plasma (liquid part of the blood)
How is glucose carried in the blood?
dissolved in the plasma (it is polar)
How is the trachea different from the esophagus? What is the functional explanation for the difference?
Trachea is held open by rings of cartilage, because breathing is automatic. Esophagus is flat and closed unless swallowing.
What are some problems plants face growing on land instead of water? Name one solution to each of these problems.
obtaining nutrition and water; developing support structures; preventing water loss; getting the sperm to the egg without water.
What are the five major groups of plants?
Flowering, green algae, mosses and relatives, ferns and relatives, cone-bearing
Mosses and their relatives are ....
Ferns and their relatives are ....
Conifers are ....
Flowering plants are...
Why have the green algae recently been reclassified as plants?
they seem to be more similar to primitive plants in terms of chemistry and structure, photosynthesis, cell wall.
what are some algae that are still classified as protists?
Red and brown algae
What are some important differences between plants and animals?
structure (carbohydrates in plants as opposed to proteins in animals); non-mobility of adults in plants; absence of nervous and sensory systems in plants; lack of photosynthesis in animals
What are some important similarities between plants and animals?
multicellular, basic metabolic needs like water and glucose for cellular respiration; identical basic cellular chemistry; development of internal fertilization (ways of getting sperm to egg without water)
What are plant cell walls made of? __?__ and __?__
Cellulose and Lignin
What are bacterial cell walls made of?
What are fungal cell walls made of?
What are the major groups of non-seeded plants? Give an example of each.
Non-seeded plants (mosses) and Pteridophytes (ferns)
Differentiate between mosses and ferns.
Mosses lack vascular tissue, are very small and restricted to very moist environments. Ferns have some vascular tissue, are larger, and can function in drier environments (still need water for sexual reproduction) (sperm need to swim in open water in the gametophyte generation).
What are the two major groups of seeded plants? Give an example of each.
Seeded plants include Gymnosperms (conifers like pines) and Angiosperms (flowering plants like oaks).
Differentiate between gymnosperms and angiosperms.
Gymnosperms do not produce flowers or fruit (hence gymnosperm, which means "naked seed"), while Angiosperms make both (angiosperm means "seed in a container"—the container being the fruit).
What is the definition of "vascular"?
tissue made up of tubes
What are the two major types of vascular tissue in plants, and what are their functions?
Xylem tubes are tough and carry water up from the roots.
Phloem tubes are softer and carry glucose from the leaves down to other organs of the plant.
what structures are present vascular but not in non-vascular plants?
xylem and phloem
Of the five major groups of plants you studied, which are vascular? Which are non-vascular? Give examples.
pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. Trees, bushes, grasses, herbs, vegetables, flowers. Non-vascular plants include the bryophytes: moss, hornwort, and liverwort
How are leaves adapted for doing photosynthesis?
increase surface area for sun exposure and have stomata that permit gas exchange.
What is an advantage of using seeds for reproduction?
a protective seed coat, stored food (to help the embryonic plant get established.)
In what way are seeds analagous to eggs?
eggs protect and nourish the embryo in animals
Of the four major groups of plants you studied, which need open water to reproduce? Which have pollen?
Bryophytes and pteridophytes need open water. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms have pollen.
How does pollen allow plants to reproduce away from open water?
protective coat which keeps it from drying out, so sperm inside can be distributed by air, insects, etc.
Which group of plants makes flowers and fruit?
How do flowers make sexual reproduction easier and more efficient?
centralize the structures needed for sexual reproduction and attract insects and birds to carry pollen.
What is the function of fruit?
any structure that develops from the ovary of the plant and helps disperse the seed.
Give some examples of non-edible fruits.
burs, maple wings, dandelion parachutes
What part of the flower develops into the fruit?
what are molds?
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