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Psychology (PSY 100) - Chapter 11
Chapter 11: Personality Myers, David G.; DeWall, C. Nathan (2014-01-20). Psychology in Everyday Life, Third Edition. Worth Publishers.
Terms in this set (36)
An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
View of personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences.
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.
According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how unimportant or embarrassing.
A reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
The largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, balances the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
The part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future goals.
Freud's idea of the mind's structure
The childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
Oedipus [ED-uh-puss] complex
According to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.
The process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos.
According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.
In psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness the thoughts, feelings, and memories that arouse anxiety.
A personality test, such as the Rorschach, that provides an unclear image designed to trigger projection of the test taker's unconscious thoughts or feelings.
Rorschach inkblot test
The most widely used projective test; a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs; at the base are physiological needs that must be satisfied before higher level safety needs, and then psychological needs, become active.
According to Maslow, the psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill our potential.
According to Maslow, the striving for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self.
unconditional positive regard
According to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
A characteristic pattern of behavior or a tendency to feel and act in a certain way, as assessed by self-reports on a personality test.
A cluster of behavior tendencies that occur together.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
A questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.
The interacting influences of behavior, internal personal factors, and environment.
Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context.
Our sense of competence and effectiveness.
Comparing the Major Personality Theories
Your image and understanding of who you are; in modern psychology, the idea that this is the center of personality, organizing your thoughts, feelings, and actions.
Overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).
Our feelings of high or low selfworth.
Our readiness to perceive ourselves favorably.
Giving priority to our own goals over group goals and defining our identity in terms of personal traits rather than group membership.
Giving priority to the goals of our group (often our extended family or work group) and defining our identity accordingly.
Recommended textbook explanations
Richard A. Kasschau
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
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