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69 terms

Comparative Anatomy Test #4

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The ovaries are located in the lower abdomen and attached to the dorsal wall of the abdomen by the ___________ ligament(s).

broad
round
proper
suspensory
both a and b
suspensory
The oviducts are paired tubes that extend from the ovary to the cranial portion of the uterus, they are attached to the ovary by the __________ ligament(s).

broad
round
proper
suspensory
both a and b
proper
The uterus is a thick walled, hollow organ and is located dorsal to the bladder, it is attached to the body wall by the ________ ligament(s).

broad
round
proper
suspensory
both a and b
both a and b
Fertilization of the egg starts here:
ovaries
oviduct
vagina
uterus
vestibule
oviduct
Stage of estrous cycle in which the female attracts the male but does not allow breeding:
anestrus
proestrus
estrus
diestrus
proestrus
In this stage of the estrous cycle, the corpus luteum secretes progesterone which supports pregnancy:
anestrus
proestrus
estrus
diestrus
diestrus
Estrogen is the main influence during this stage of the estrus cycle:
anestrus
proestrus
estrus
diestrus
estrus
This structure lies along the surface of the testicles and stores and secrete semen:
spermatic cord
ureter
urethra
epididymis
vas deferens
epididymis
Which of the following hormones is released by the nursing stimulus and causes "milk let-down?"
testosterone
oxytocin
estrogen
progesterone
oxytocin
Stage of the estrous cycle in which the female will allow breeding?
anestrus
proestrus
estrus
diestrus
estrus
Lack of ADH would cause

diabetes mellitus
anuria
anemia
polyuria/polydipsia
polyuria/polydipsia
Micturition occurs when

stretch reflexes cause involuntary smooth muscle contraction

sphincter muscle relaxes under voluntary control

the bladder can stretch no further

all of the above
all of the above
Water from avian urine can still be reabsorbed once it has reached the cloaca.
True
False
True
The part of the mammalian kidney that contains glomeruli is the

pelvis
medulla
cortex
hilus
cortex
Filtration of plasma takes place in the

renal tubules
renal corpuscles
collecting ducts
renal pelvis
renal corpuscles
Reabsorption and secretion take place in the

renal tubules
renal corpuscles
collecting ducts
renal pelvis
renal tubules
Reabsorption means movement of fluid

from nephron to capillaries

from capillaries to nephron

from nephron to collecting ducts

out of the body
from nephron to capillaries
The majority of avian species lack a bladder.

True
False
True
Its important to know if a drug injected into a rear leg vein in a bird has adverse effects on the kidney due to their unique hepatic portal system.

True
False
False (Renal Portal System- no hepatic portal system)
Severe kidney disease is often accompanied by what blood disorder?

hemophilia
anemia
polycythemia
leukemia
anemia (damaged kidneys don't produce the correct amount of erythropoietin.)
Which layer of the ureter allows the ureter to stretch as urine passes thru it.

outer
inner
middle
inner
The working unit of the kidney is the:

nueron
nuetron
nephron
necton
nephron
A major difference between endocrine and exocrine glands is

endocrine glands secrete directly into the bloodstream

exocrine glands secrete onto an epithelial (outside) surface

exocrine glands secrete through ducts

all of the above
all of the above
The hormones released by the neurohypophysis

are produced in the neurohypophysis

act on other endocrine glands to stimulate their secretions

are produced in the hypothalamus

are produced in the thalamus
are produced in the hypothalamus
Most of the hormones released by the adenohypophysis

are produced in the neurohypophysis

act on other endocrine glands to stimulate their secretions

are produced in the hypothalamus

are produced in the thalamus
act on other endocrine glands to stimulate their secretions
Estrogen is produced by

ovarian follicles
testes
the adrenal cortex
all of the above
all of the above
The pancreas produces what hormone that is used to decrease blood sugar.

glucagon
androgens
melatonin
insulin
insulin
_____ has/have an anabolic effect (promoting protein synthesis)

Thyroid hormone
Growth hormone
Androgens
All of the above
All of the above
____ has/have a catabolic effect (promoting protein breakdown)

Glucocorticoids
Mineralocorticoids
Epinephrine
Insulin
Glucocorticoids
Blood calcium is increased by the action of

parathormone (PTH)
aldosterone
calcitonin
all of the above
parathormone (PTH)
Glucose in the blood increases due to the effects of

growth hormone
glucagon
glucocorticoids
all of the above
all of the above
A major difference between the endocrine and nervous systems is

the endocrine system helps maintain homeostasis

the endocrine system sends instructions via chemical messengers

reaction to endocrine messages is slow and duration of reaction is long

all of the above
reaction to endocrine messages is slow and duration of reaction is long
Prostaglandins travel long distances from the tissues in which they are produced.

True
False
False
The endocrine system is linked the nervous system through the thalamus.

True
False
False
What are two functions of the ovaries?
1. Produce ova
2. Produce hormones
What part of the female reproductive system is suspended from the dorsal wall by the suspensory ligament?
Ovaries
What part of the female reproductive system is a small pair of organs located in the located in the lower abdomen?
Ovaries
What part of the female reproductive system transports sperm traveling toward the egg?
oviducts
What part of the female reproductive system collects ova and transports to the uterus?
oviducts
Paired tubes that extend from the ovary to the cranial portion of the uterus is also called the ________ ____
fallopian tubes
What part of the female reproductive system has a thick walled, hollow organ with muscular walls and a mucous membrane lining?
uterus
The uterus is attached to the body wall by two main ligaments:
the broad ligament and the round ligament
The uterine opening is protected by the cervix and consists of three parts, what are they?
1. horns of the uterus
2. uterine body
3. cervix
What part of the female reproductive system is very elastic, muscular structure lined with muscosa that extends from the cervix to the vulva.
vagina
What part of the female reproductive system expands during parturition and is also called the birth canal?
vagina
What part of the female reproductive system is the most caudal part of the reproductive tract?
vulva
The vulva consists of two parts:
vestibule & labia
What is the hormone that induces labor and delivery
oxytocin
mammary glands are also called
milk producing glands in females
the estrous cycle prepares the uterus for the ____________ __________
fertilized ovum
The ruptured follicle will continue to grow and fills with a yellow fluid called
corpus luteum
the __________ ________ is responsible for the secretion of progesterone.
corpus luteum
Which state of the estrous cycle has a duration period of 4.5 months
anestrus
Which state of the estrous cycle is when the female does not attract the male. & no vulvar swelling or discharge?
Anestrus
Which state of the estrous cycle has a duration period of 7-9 days?
proestrus and estrus
Which state of the estrous cycle is when the female attracts the male but will not allow breeding. Swollen vulva, with bloody discharge ( in dogs). Discharge is not seen in cats
proestrus
Which state of the estrous cycle is when the female attracts the male and will allow breeding. swollen vulva, with straw colored discharge. in cats: wailing, rolling, flagging tail, lordosis
estrus
Which state of the estrous cycle is when the female no longer attracts the male and is not receptive to breeding. Vulvar swelling and discharge have decreased.
diestrus
What part of the male reproductive system encloses the testes outside the body?
scrotum
What part of the male reproductive system produces testosterone?
testes
What part of the male reproductive system has a tube connected to the epididymis that carries sperm into the pelvic area towards the urethra?
vas deferens
What part of the male reproductive system contains nerves, blood and lymph vessels, and cremaster muscle?
spermatic cord
What part of the male reproductive system connects testicle with the body
spermatic cord
Which species variation dops his penis when relaxed or to urinate?
equine
Which species variation has two mammary glands?
equine
Which species variation has a S-shaped penis and has four mammary glands?
bovine
Which species variation has a corkscrew-shaped penis?
swine
Which species variation testes enlarge during the breeding season and shrink to normal size afterwards
avian
Which species variation has only a functional left ovary and oviduct.
avian