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Chapter 12 - The Spread of Civilization in East and Southeast Asia
Terms in this set (101)
emerged in 618 to unify China, building a strong central government, conquering territory and forcing Vietnam, Tibet and Korea to become tributary states
Li Shimin, a brilliant general, government reformer, historian, and master of calligraphy, who was the second Tang emperor
states that remain self-governing, but must acknowledge the supremacy of another state and send tribute to that state
in this case, breaking up large agricultural holdings and redistributing the land to peasants - strengthens the central government by weakening the power of large landowners - increases revenue from taxes
emerged in 960 under a scholarly general named Zhao Kuangyin who reunited much of China - economy flourished, faster growing rice discovered and imported - this allowed surplus of food and therefore trade increases, and time for leisure and arts expands
wealthy landowning class
the payment that a woman brings to marriage
a multistoried temple with eaves that curve up at the corners
Vietnam, Tibet and Korea
tributary states of the Tang Dynasty
civil service system
enlarged under the Tang rulers to recruit talented officials trained in Confucian philosophy
more than is needed - one of these was created during the Song Dynasty when a faster-growing rice was imported that allowed for two crops per year
building these encouraged internal trade and transportation
lowest class in Chinese society - not respected because they did not make a product but lived off of the work of others
practice of breaking and binding the feet of women - considered beautiful and a sign of high social class - left women with health problems, handicapped and subservient in many ways
painting and calligraphy
essential skills for the scholar-gentry
the ideal to be reached in all Chinese art - architecture, landscaping, painting and poetry
Empress Wu Zhao
the only woman to rule China in her own name
early printing press, gunpowder, paper money
notable achievements of the Tang and Song Dynasties
True or False - Peasants often tried to solve their own disputes rather than go to the emperor's representative
Was social mobility possible during the Tang and Song Dynasties?
vast, treeless plains
Mongol chieftan who took the name "Universal Ruler"
grandson of Genghis Khan who toppled the last Song emperor in 1279
name Kublai Khan gave to his dynasty
Italian traveler who worked for Kublai Khan and wrote about his journeys through Asia
dynasty that took control after the Mongols, name means "brilliant"
Chinese admiral and diplomat who proudly took Chinese fleets on expeditions
period in the 1200s and 1300s in Asia known for peace and order
The Water Margin
famous early Chinese novel
ruled or controlled with power
strict military discipline and absolute loyalty
attributes required by Genghis Khan
Mongol armies brought this technology to their warfare
Mongol rulers, once they had conquered a territory, were surprisingly __________ about the lifestyle and religion of the conquered people.
in the military and highest government jobs
Only Mongols could serve in what capacities?
Marco Polo's writings made Europeans interested in what region?
a rebel army
Zhu Yuanzhang, a peasant leader, created this to push the Mongols back beyond the Great Wall.
Which dynasty restored the civil service exam and and brought Confucian learning back to prominence in China?
Ming __________ of blue and white porcelain are still highly valued today.
Zheng He traveled with great convoys of ships to ports around Asia
In order to promote trade, collect tribute, and show Chinese wealth and power...
Which rulers developed a pony-express type communication system?
capital of the Yuan Dynasty
True or False - Kublai Khan wanted the Mongols to adopt as much Chinese culture as possible.
ruled from 668-935 trade and arts flourished - among the most advanced civilizations at that time
ruled from 918-1392 - improved on the Chinese wood block printing technique by making movable metal type - also created the technique for making celadon
Choson (Yi) Dynasty
ruled from 1392-1910 - overthrew the Mongols and set up a government based on Confucian principles
porcelain with an unusual blue-green glaze
person who commissioned scholars to create a system to replace the complex Chinese writing system
Korean phonetic alphabet
percentage of people who can read and write
religion popular in Asia - stresses that all life is suffering and all suffering is caused by desire - the way to peace is to empty oneself of desire
armored ships that were able to sail right into the midst of the enemy fleet
western coastal plains
Korea's major farming region
a major food source for Korea
China and Japan
Korea has served as a cultural bridge linking what two countries
Who brought arts and learning from China and India to Korea?
"city of gold" where the aristocracy pursued a life of high culture and extravagance.
Which was the only class allowed to take the civil service exam in Korea?
Who invaded Korea between 1231 and the 1250s?
The adoption of a Korean alphaet was just one example of how Korean's preseved __________.
The use of turtle ships helped to drive which invaders out of Korea?
a chain of islands
killer tidal waves launched by underwater earthquakes
the worship of the forces of nature
choosing some cultural traditions, but not all, from another people
Japanese phonetic symbols representing syllables
the fighting aristocracy
"the way of the warrior"
Buddhist sect that emphasized self-reliance, meditation and devotion to duty
Ring of Fire
a chain of volcanoes that encircle the Pacific ocean
set up Japan's first and only dynasty
in narrow river valleys and along the coast
Where do most people in Japan live?
The Yamato clan claimed to be descendants of whom?
The Japanese, during the Heian period, were fascinated with the culture and language of this country.
During this period, court culture was elegant and sophisticated with elaborate rules of etiquette.
Like Europe, Japan also experienced a period of __________.
This person held the real power in the Japanese feudal system.
The position of women __________ during the time of feudalism in Japan.
Mongol invasions were twice stopped by what force?
Japanese puppet plays
inheritance passed through the mother
fields in which rice is grown
famous Hindu temple of the Khmer people
describes the family structure in most of Southeast Asia
early Buddhist kingdom, King built many magnificent stupas
early Hindu kingdom, adapted Indian writing
early kingdom that controlled the Malacca Strait
early kingdom under Chinese rule f0r 1000 years
King Suryavarman II
builder of Angkor Wat
mainland and island
the two regions of Southeast Asia
What protects Southeast Asia?
Which group had greater equality in Southeast Asia than they held in other parts of Asia?
What climatic force shapes the trading patterns in the southern seas?
What is the key export of this area?
merchants, priests and scholars
Which types of people helped to spread Indian culture to Southeast Asia?
Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam
Which religions were brought to Southeast Asia?
Who conquered the Pagan empire in 1287?
Buddhism and Hinduism were often blended with __________.
Despite influences from their neighbors, these Southeast Asian kingdoms retained a sense of their own __________.
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