pharmacy & healthcare midterm (multiple choice)

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What are some factors that have shaped our healthcare delivery system from colonial times through today?
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What are some factors that have shaped our healthcare delivery system from colonial times through today?
1. lack of formal training of colonial providers
2. rural and urban health disparities
3. orthodox vs. sectarian (religious previously)
4. rise of proprietary medications
5. role of hospital over time from place to die to what it is today
how do the Flexner Report and the "golden age" of medicine relate to the notion of patient-centered care? how does this relate to pharmacy?
flexner report got rid of apprenticeships, doctors had to go to medical school (1). this limits the number of doctors so increases their pay and prestige (2). also contributed to physician authority and autonomy (3). overall less access for patients.
-pharmacists weren't viewed as professionals
which of the following has done the least to increase life expectancies in the US and why? changes in stand of living or lifestyle, advance in public health measures, or progress in medical practice
progress in medical practice because this is more focused influence on individuals. example is drugs to treat chronic conditions...don't need these if everyone dies at 30.
at their heart, what are the goals of managed care and healthcare reform?
to take a finite resource and get the most benefit from it
compare medicine and public health:
-medicine is treating patients, one by one, one on one, one for one...clinicians to selected individuals
-public health is assessing and assuring the health and well-being of populations...clinicians to the whole community
what are 4 ways public health professionals try to prevent problems from happening or re-coccuring?
1. implementing educational programs
2. developing policies
3. administering services
4. conducting research
what is the mission of public health and what is the substance of public health?
-the mission is assuring conditions in which people can be healthy
-the substance of public health is organized community efforts aimed at the prevention of disease and the promotion of health
What are the 3 core functions of public health? and what is the definition of each?
1. assessment: systematically collect, analyze, and make available info on healthy communities
2. policy development: promote the use of a scientific knowledge base in policy and decision making
3. assurance: ensure provision of services to those in need
what are the 10 essential functions of public health?
-assessment:
1. monitor health
2. diagnose and investigate
-policy development
3. inform, educate, empower
4. mobilize community partnership
5. develop policies
-assurance
6. enforce laws
7. link to / provide care
8. assure competent workforce
9. evaluate
-at center
10. used to be research, now is health equity
what are some examples what public health does for the public?
1. prevent epidemics, spread of disease (covid)
2. protect against environmental hazards (lead)
3. prevent injuries (seatbelts)
4. promote, encourage healthy behaviors (smoke-free laws)
5. respond to disaster, assist in recovery (tornadoes)
6. assure quality and accessibility of health services (free STD testing)
what are two main roles for pharmacists in public health?
1. chronic disease management: chronic disease meds are 91% of prescriptions filled, medication adherence is problem in chronic disease management
2. improve access to quality care: pharmacies are well established in rural and urban locations, est. 275 million patient visits to a pharmacy each week
how do pharmacists improve healthcare via primary prevention?
1. immunizations
2. cardiovascular risk reduction clinics
3. tobacco cessation clinics
4. disease screenings (secondary?)
how do pharmacists improve healthcare via secondary prevention?
1. patient education encounters
2. care team involvement - collaborative care models
3. collaborative practice authority
4. case management
5. follow-up care
what is public health made up of?
health care delivery system + employers and business + the media + academia + public health (government) infrastructure + the community ------> all work together to assure conditions for population health
rank the factors of risk of premature death by impact.
most impact: individual behavior (40%)
genetics (30%)
social and environmental factors (20%)
least impact: health care (10%)