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Honors World History Final Review (9th)
Terms in this set (95)
What three traditions/cultures were blended to create the early forms of European culture?
a loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords. In exchange, lesser lords, or vassals, pledged service and loyalty to the greater lord.
Define the term vassal.
The lesser lords of the feudal system who pledged service to the greater lord.
How did the Christian Church shape and influence the lives of European Society?
-social center as well as a place of worship.
-rituals and faith were part of the fabric of everyday life.
-guided people on issues of values and morality.
-cared for the poor and sick, set up schools for children, and gave food and lodging to travelers.
What is papal supremacy?
The Pope's authority over all secular rulers.
What is Canon Law?
The medieval Church's own body of laws, as well as its own courts.
How did the growing power held by the Church also create problems for the Church?
power grew, discipline weakened.
clergy ignored their vows and lived in luxury.
priests focused more on family than on Church duties.
What were the main farming technologies that created the Agricultural Revolution?
iron plow, windmill, three field system, and the harness.
What was the ultimate result on European society as a result of the Agricultural Revolution?
An increase in food production created more healthy people, which caused a significant population explosion from 1000 to 1300 A.D.
What did monarchs do to expand their power over society during the High Middle Ages?
-set up royal courts
-organized government bureaucracies
-developed systems of taxation
-built standing armies
-strengthened ties with the middle class
What happened to the Holy Roman Empire after the death of Charlemagne?
The Holy Roman Empire dissolved into a number of separate states.
German emperors claimed authority over much of central and eastern Europe and parts of France and Italy.
The hundreds of nobles and Church officials, who were the emperor's vassals, held the real power.
What is lay investiture?
The practice of Holy Roman emperors and other monarchs appointing the Church officials within their realm.
What were the major social effects of the Black Plague?
-Some people turned to magic and witchcraft for cures.
-Others believed they were being punished by God.
-Some people turned to wild pleasure, believing the end was inevitable.
-Normal life broke down.
-Individuals turned away from neighbors and relatives to avoid contagion.
-Christians blamed and persecuted Jews.
What were the major economic effects of the Black Plague?
-As workers died, production declined.
-Surviving workers demanded higher wages. As the cost of labor soared, inflation, or rising prices, broke out.
-Landowners abandoned farming, forcing villagers to look for work in the towns.
-Unable to find work, peasants revolted.
What two weapons of war were developed during the Hundred Years War?
the longbow and the cannon.
What three main factors contributed to the decline of the Byzantine Empire?
Attacks from the northern powers.
Attacks from the Ottomans.
Describe the three main geographic features of Russia and how they shaped life in early Russia.
a large band of fertile land in the south.
a large steppe providing easy travel between Europe and Asia.
a large network of rivers for transportation and trade of goods.
How did the Mongol Conquest of Russia shape the present/future of Russian life in religion?
tolerated the Russian Orthodox Church, which grew more powerful.
How did the Mongol Conquest of Russia shape the present/future of Russian life in the role of women?
adopted the practice of subjugating women.
How did the Mongol Conquest of Russia shape the present/future of Russian life in trade?
Trade routes opened up between China and Eastern Europe.
How did the Mongol Conquest of Russia shape the present/future of Russian life in politics/government?
power of the Mongols served as a model for later Russian rulers.
What were the three main empires of Eastern Europe, and what eventually caused the decline of each?
Poland reached its height of power when Queen Jadwiga married a Lithuanian duke. However, it declined when its rulers were unable to maintain a strong central government.
Hungary was overrun, first by Mongols, and then by Ottoman Turks.
Serbia was overrun by Ottoman Turks.
Describe the main characteristics of the religion of Islam in its belief about God.
monotheistic, based on the belief in one God.
Describe the main characteristics of the religion of Islam in the Five Pillars of Islam.
fasting during Ramadan
hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca
What were the four main reasons that Muslims were able to conquer so many lands?
The Byzantine and Persian empires were weak from years of fighting each other.
People in the Fertile Crescent welcomed these conquerors as liberators.
They used bold, efficient fighting methods, which overwhelmed traditional armies.
The common faith united a patchwork of tribes into a determined, unified state.
Describe the main characteristics of the religion of Islam (the sacred text)
the Quran contains the sacred word of God and is the final authority on all matters
Describe how Muslim culture advanced in philosophy
Scholars tried to harmonize Greek ideas of reason with religious teachings of Islam.
Set standards for scientific study of history.
Describe how Muslim culture advanced in mathematics
Scholars studied Indian and Greek mathematics.
They pioneered the study of algebra and wrote mathematics textbook that became standard in Europe.
Describe how Muslim culture advanced in astronomy
They developed astronomical tables.
Astronomers calculated circumference of the Earth
Describe how Muslim culture advanced in medicine
Government set up hospitals with emergency rooms.
studied measles and smallpox.
wrote a medical encyclopedia.
Surgeons developed treatment for cataracts.
What traditional Indian religion blended with Islam to create Sikhism?
What are the main tenants of sikhism?
belief in the "unity of God."
belief in reincarnation.
the rejection of the Caste System.
How did the process of desertification affect migration on the continent of Africa?
the land became dry and the desert spread. It encouraged migration, as people were forced to seek new places to live.
Over thousands of years, migration has contributed to the rich diversity of people and cultures in Africa.
How did Roman Culture shape the cultures of North Africa?
Christianity spread to the cities of North Africa. They also built roads, dams, aqueducts, and cities across the region.
How did Arab Armies shape the cultures of North Africa?
carried Islam to North Africa. Islam replaced Christianity as the dominant religion of the region, and Arabic became the primary language.
How did Asian Cultures shape the cultures of North Africa?
brought in the camel, which revolutionized trade.
How did Ghana have a significant effect on trade?
The king controlled gold-salt trade routes across West Africa and collected tolls on all goods entering and leaving their country.
What was the significance of the Songhai Kingdom of Africa?
forged the largest state that had ever existed in West Africa.
The kingdom gained control of trade routes and wealthy cities like Timbuktu
How did the Hausa Kingdom create major advances in African civilization?
Built a number of clay-walled cities, which expanded into thriving commercial centers
Traded with merchants as far away as North Africa and southern Europe
Developed a written language based on Arabic
Had many women rulers
How did art and literature affect the development of African societies?
It strengthened bonds within the community.
Decorative patterns often identified a piece of art as the work of a particular clan.
It was closely tied to religion.
African societies preserved their histories and values through oral and written literature.
Griots, or professional poets, recited ancient stories.
Histories and folk tales encouraged a sense of community and common values.
Describe how physical geography and location have influenced the growth of Japan.
located on an archipelago, or chain of islands, about 100 miles off the Asian mainland.
Because four-fifths of the region is mountainous, most people settled in narrow river valleys and along coastal plains.
The surrounding seas have both protected and isolated this region. The region was close enough to the mainland to learn from Korea and China, but too far away for the Chinese to conquer.
The seas also served as trade routes for this region.
Describe Japanese theater
No plays presented Zen Buddhist themes or recounted fairy tales or power struggles.
Kabuki, a popular new form of drama, combined drama, dance, and music.
Puppet plays, known as bunraku, were popular.
describe japanese literature
Essays expressed Zen values or contained observations about human nature.
Their poets adapted Chinese models, creating miniature poems called haiku
describe japanese painting and printmaking
Their painters were influenced by Chinese landscape paintings, yet developed their own styles.
Painters recreated historical events on scrolls.
Woodblock prints used fresh colors and simple lines to convey town life.
Describe the economic and social conditions that existed at the onset of the Italian Renaissance.
marked by a new interest in the culture of ancient Rome. Italy had been the center of the Roman empire.
cities had grown into prosperous centers of trade and manufacturing.
wealthy merchant class stressed education and individual achievement and spent lavishly on the arts.
an amazing number of gifted poets, artists, architects, scholars, and scientists.
Provide a good detailed definition for the Italian Renaissance.
a time of creativity and change in many areas-political, social, economic, and cultural. Perhaps most important, however, were the changes that took place in the way people viewed themselves and their world.
What belief system was at the heart of the Renaissance? Define this belief system.
Humanism, which was based on the study of classical culture and focused on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues.
What are the three main tenant's of Christian faith that Martin Luther taught?
Salvation is achieved through faith alone.
The Bible is the sole source of religious truth.
All Christians have equal access to God through faith and the Bible
What scientific breakthrough is isaac newton noted for?
proposed the law of gravity.
what scientific breakthrough is robert boyle noted for?
differentiated elements from compounds and explained the effects of temperature and pressure on gases.
what scientific breakthrough is andreas vesalius noted for
published the first accurate study of human anatomy.
what scientific breakthrough is william harvey noted for
described the circulation of blood for the first time.
what scientific breakthrough is ambroise pare noted for
developed an ointment for preventing infection and a technique for stitching wounds.
what scientific breakthrough is anthony von leeuwenhook noted for
perfected the microscope and was the first human to see cells and microorganisms.
Why did Europeans cross the seas?
They wanted spices.
Their merchants wanted to gain direct access to the riches of Asia.
Some voyagers still wanted to crusade against the Muslims.
Others were inspired by the Renaissance spirit to learn about distant lands.
What two technological advancements helped with European ocean navigation?
The Astrolabe and the Caravel.
What significant navigational achievements did Dias reach?
rounded the southern tip of Africa, later called the Cape of Good Hope.
What significant navigational achievements did De Gama reach?
reached the spice port of Calicut in India.
Why was it so important to control the Straits of Malacca?
it was the main trading route in the waters of Southeast Asia. Whoever controlled this control all trade in the region.
Describe the relationship, trading and otherwise, between Chinese dynasties and European traders.
They saw the Europeans as "southern barbarians," lacking civilized ways.
allowed them a trading post at Macao. Because they were uninterested in European trading products, they demanded payment for Chinese goods in gold or silver.
Discuss the main cultural effects of the Spaniards conquest of the Taino people.
they seized gold from them, and forced them to convert to Christianity. They forced them into slavery on their large plantations.
Discuss the main physical effects of the Spaniards conquest of the Taino people.
smallpox, measles and influenza carried by the Europeans wiped out village after native village. Native Americans had no immunity, or resistance, to such diseases.
Who were the Peninsulares in Spanish Culture?
people born in Spain, were at the top of society.
Who were the Creoles in Spanish Culture?
American-born descendents of Spanish settlers, were next.
Who were the Mestizos in Spanish Culture?
people of Native American and European descent.
Who were the Mulattoes in Spanish Culture?
people of African and European descent. Native Americans and people of African descent formed the lowest social classes.
What were the main reasons for the settlement of the British Colonies?
Some were commercial ventures. Others were set up as havens for persecuted religious groups.
Why was the Mayflower Compact so important both to the Colonists and how this agreement changed the face of government in the Colonies?
Today we see it as an important early step toward self-government.
What three regions did the majority of African slaves end up in?
The Caribbean Islands, Brazil, and Spanish speaking America.
How did the period of African Slave Trade create both the growth and decline of some African States?
Some lost countless numbers of young women and men which resulted in some small states disappearing forever.
Some new states arose whose way of life depended on the slave trade. The rulers of these new states waged war against other states in order to gain control of the slave trade in their region.
Describe both peasant life and noble life in the feudal system.
-Serfs were bound to the land. They were not slaves, yet they were not free.
-Serfs made up the majority of the population in medieval society.
-Life was very harsh.
-Warfare was a way of life.
-Many trained from boyhood to be knights, or mounted warriors.
Discuss the main causes and effects of the Crusades.
-Turks invade Palestine and attack Christian pilgrims.
-Crusaders were motivated by religious zeal and the desire to win wealth and land.
-Pope Urban hopes to heal the schism, or split, between Roman and Byzantine churches and increase papal power.
-Religious hatred grows.
-Europe develops a money economy, which helps undermine serfdom.
-Power of feudal monarchs increases.
-Europeans become curious about the world.
Discuss how the Byzantine Church and the Western European Church contrasted and conflicted with one another?
-Byzantine emperor controlled Church affairs
-People rejected pope's claim to authority over all Christians
-Clergy kept right to marry
-Greek was language of the Church
-Easter was main holy day
-Emperor outlawed the use of icons, or holy images
-Pope controlled Church affairs
-People accepted pope's claim to authority over all Christians
-Clergy prohibited from marrying
-Latin was language of the Church
-Christmas was main holy day
-Use of holy images permitted.
Describe Sharia Law, and discuss how Sharia Law differs from other law codes that evolved in the West.
-regulated moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, and other aspects of a Muslim community.
-does not separate religious matters from criminal or civil law.
Describe the commonalities of African cultures in the areas of government, religion, and family structure.
-Villages were tight knit communities.
-In most villages, power was shared among a group of elders.
-A village made decisions by consensus.
-Villages within a kingdom had to pay taxes and provide soldiers to the central government.
-Religious beliefs were varied and complex.
-People identified the forces of nature with divine spirits.
-Many Africans believed in a single supreme being, above all other gods.
-Christianity and Islam influenced people in some parts of Africa.
-The family was the basic unit of society.
-Some families were matrilineal, while others were patrilineal.
-Each family belonged to a lineage. Several lineages formed a clan.
-One's place in society was determined by age grades.
Describe the Feudal Hierarchy of Japan.
-As the emperor presided over the splendid courts of Heian, rival clans battled for control of the countryside. Local warlords formed armed bands loyal to them rather than to the emperor. In this way, this culture evolved a feudal system.
-In theory, the emperor stood at the head of this feudal society. In fact, he was powerless. Real power lay in the hands of the shogun, or supreme military commander.
-The shogun distributed land to vassal lords who agreed to protect them. These great warrior lords were called daimyo. They, in turn, granted land to lesser warriors called samurai
What were some of the main impacts of the Italian Renaissance in the areas of literature, art/paintings, and architecture?
Wrote self-help books to help ambitious men and women rise in the Renaissance world
-Developed realistic style. Learned rules of perspective. Used shading to make objects look round and real. Studied human anatomy. Used live models
-Rejected Gothic style. Adopted columns, domes, and arches that had been favored by the Greeks and Romans
How did the spread of Christianity contributed to Japan choosing to isolate itself from European influences.
-Leaders grew increasingly hostile toward foreigners.
-They saw the foreigners as agents of an invading force.
-They suspected that the many their country's Christians were loyal to the pope, rather than to their leaders.
-They disliked the competition among Christian missionaries.
Describe the government, church rule, and economy of the new Spanish Empire in the Americas.
-Spain was determined to maintain strict control over its empire.
-The empire was divided into five provinces, each of which was ruled by a viceroy.
-The Council of the Indies helped pass laws for the colonies.
-The Church worked with the government to convert Native Americans to Christianity.
-Church leaders often served as royal officials.
-Spanish missionaries forcibly imposed European culture over Native American culture.
-Spain closely controlled economic activity, especially trade.
-The Spanish grew sugar cane, which was grown on plantations and required large numbers of workers.
-At first, the Spanish forced the Native Americans to work under brutal conditions.
-Later, the colonists began shipping slaves from Africa to do their work
Chapter 17 Vocabulary
Absolute Monarch: ruler with complete authority over the government and lives on people they govern
Divine Right: belief that rulers authority comes directly from God
Armada: fleet of ships
Intendent: official appointed by French King Louis XIV to govern the provinces, collect taxes, and recruit soldiers
Levee: morning rituals which nobles would wait for King Louis
Balance of Power: distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming to strong
Dissenter: Protestant whose views and opinions differed with those of the Church of England
Habeas Corpus: Principle that a person cannot be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime
Limited Monarchy: Government in which constitution or legislative body limits monarchy power
Elector: One of 7 German princes who would choose the holy Roman Emperor
Mercenary: Soldier serving in foreign army for pay
Who were Tudors?
believed in divine right; didn't recognize parliament
Who were Stuarts?
Rulina family of Scotland, weren't popular or skilled, pitted against parliament
What was the Glorious Revolution?
William and Mary overthrew James 2
What were the causes and results of the Thirty Years War?
- Ferdinand sought to suppress protestants and gain royal power
- Tried to bring reformation
- Rebellions turned into wars
- Politics outweighed religious issues
Describe how Austria and Prussia rose to power after the Thirty Years War
Austria: Had diverse populations
Prussia: Step up efficient central bureaucracy and reduced independence
Describe how Russia expanded under the rule of Peter the Great
- Largest standing army
- Warm water port
- War with Sweden
- Won land from Sweden
How did Catherine the Great organize and structure government under her rule?
- Reorganized provincial government
- Codified laws
- Began state sponsored education
- Achieved warm water ports
Describe the reign of King Charles V. Include dates of his reign and main events of his reign.
- 1519: inherited a huge empire
- heirs Holy Roman Empire and Netherlands
- Fought constant religious warfare
- Enemy: Ottoman Empire
- 1556: gave up his titles and entered a monastery
- He divided his empires and left (Gave his son 2 countries)
Describe the reign of King Philip 2. Include dates of his reign and main events of his reign.
- Hard workers: sought to expand Spanish influence, strengthen Catholic Church, and make his own power absolute
- Centralized royal power
- Ruled by Divine Right: Rule from God
- To defend Catholic reformation
- Queen Elizabeth wanted to kill him
- Wanted to invade England
- Huge armada, fleet, to carry a Spanish invasion force to England
Describe the roles of both painters and writers during Spain's Golden Age. Include themes the major accomplishments for each category.
- El Greco "The Greek": Studied in Renaissance Italy before settling in Spain. Produced haunting religious pictures, dramatic views of the city of Toledo, and striking portraits of Spanish Nobles (dramatically elongated style).
- Vibrant colors: influenced Diego Velazquez . He is best known for his vivid portraits of Spanish Royalty
- Lope de Vega: plays (comedies and romances)
- "The Sheep Well": Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand ~ saving village
- Miguel de Cervantes: wrote Don Quixote; first modern novel in Europe
Why did the Spanish economy decline in the 1600's?
- Lack of strong leadership
- Economic Problems: Costly oversea wars drained wealth
- Treasure form Americas led Spain to neglect farming and commerce
- Government heavily taxed small middle class
- Expulsion of Muslims and Jews from Spain derived economy of many skilled artisans and merchants
- American gold and silver led to soaring inflation (high prices in Spain)
Describe the main role of religion in rebuilding France, and the process of how Henry IV laid the foundations for absolutism
-Henry IV was ruling a catholic land, so he switched from protestant to catholic
- By building the royal bureaucracy and reducing the influence of nobles, henry IV laid the foundation of royal absolutism
Describe in detail how louis XIV strengthened royal power
- spent many hours each day attending government affairs
- followed the policies of Richelieu
- expanded bureaucracy and appointed intendants, recruited soldiers, and carried out his policies in the provinces
- connected ties between middle class and monarchy
What were the main successes and failures of louis XIV?
success: gained some power
failures: his later wars were disastrous because rival rulers joined forces to check french ambitions
Describe the events on the following dates that eventually led to the english parliament passing the bill of rights
1603- England was ruled by tudor dynasty, elizabeth dies
1640- Charles summoned parliament
1642- Charles led troops into house of commons to to arrest leaders
1649- Civil war ended, charles condemned to death
1660-Charles II elected
1688- William and Mary landed with army
1689- English Bill of rights
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