whitening population over time through immigration and intermarriage..."racial optimists"
the cause of racial mixing, as believed by "racial pessimists"
revolution, 1910, uprising by Francisco Madero against Porfirio Díaz; Nationalist=Madero; Emilio Zapata (a local leader), Pancho Villa (built army of cowboys, miners, etc.)
common lands belonging to a town or village; Mexican revolution restored and created ejidos during 1920's and 30's land reform
what Mexican minister of education in 1920's José Vasconcelos called mestizos
reform movement led by Jose Batlle y Ordóñez during his second term as president of Urugay (1911-15); civic and economic nationalism; social changes (welfare, working conditions=improved); tried to protect uruguay from foreign involvement
producing mass consumption items (soap, matches, beer, shoes, aspirin, etc.); responded to opportunities of ISI
"durable goods" ie. cars, radios, fridges; responded less to ISI
Revolution of 1930 (Brazil)
Getúlio Vargas; FDR type; 1929=elected prez.with support of army over "coffee king" of São paulo; became dictator
estado novo (new state, brazil)
1937=vargas' dictatorial ways begin, nationalist institutional makeover for Brazil; highly authoritarian government; legislative bodies dissolved and political parties banned and mass media censored; Vargas still popular though due to pragmatism and results and nationalist!
NATIONALIZATION (OF INDUSTRY/PUBLIC WORKS)
created committees to supervise: railroads, mining, immigration, schools, sports and rec, energy, etc. created "National motor factory"; created national music and national program of musical enrichment; art, books
Good Neighbor Policy
1933; swore off US military intervention in Lat-am; Cuba and Panama no longer US "protectorates"; improved relations w/ US and lat am
Political movement epousing a strong state, national pride, and economic development; oppose imperialist outsiders; usually defend poor majority
action against foreign economic imperialism; raising tariffs to protect local business, government monopoly over public utilities, etc.
Nationalist emphasis on indigenous roots.
IMPORT SUBSTITUTION INDUSTRIALIZATION (ISI)
trade and economic policy that advocates replacing imports with domestically produced products
style of politics aimed at urban working and middle classes (aka populist coalition); nationalist themes and ISI
Emiliano Zapata (Mexico)
man who led uprising against Diaz; began Mexican Revolution
Pancho Villa (Mexico)
built army of cowboys, railroad workers, miners, etc.; revolutionary
Jose Battle y Ordonez (Uruguay)
Uruguay nationalist reformer; 2 terms as prez (1903-07 and 1911-15); civic and economic nationalism
Hipólito Yrigoyen (Argentina)
"civil caudillo" won presidency in 1916..hated elite, man of the people; middle-class reform, supported working class--->Radical Civil Union.
Haya de la Torre (Peru)
led Peruvian nationalists from exile; nationalist leader who was exile from peru in 1920 for leading protests against pro-US dictator; founded Popular American Revolutionary Alliance (APRA)
Getúlio Vargas (Brazil)
FDR of Brazil; 19 year presidency; revolutionary nationalist; revolution of 1930 in brazil; killed self while in office
Lázaro Cárdenas (Mexico)
Mexico; 1934-1940 president; came from humble beginnings; wanted better, fairer Mexico; distributed land; supported labor organizations--defended right to strike; PEMEX--->"mexico's declaration of economic independence"
Rafael Trujillo (Dominican Republic)
dictator/president for 20+ years until assassinated; many people died in this era. FDR said: "he may be a bastard, but he's our bastard."