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Encountering the Old Testament, Chapter 2
Terms in this set (24)
Christian doctrine that God took on human form in Jesus Christ. Through an act of grace, the Son of God assumed a human body and human nature. The doctrine teaches that Jesus is the eternal Son of God and the earthly Messiah, one person with two natures, who was both fully human and fully divine. Revelation in the Old Testament hints at this Christian doctrine because God always reveals himself "incarnationally," that is, in real time and space.
Area of rich soil joining the three geographical subregions of the ancient Near East (Mesopotamia, Syria-Palestine, and Egypt). Most of the terrain of the ancient world was rugged and inhospitable to human life, and even the fertile lands were bordered by nearly impassable mountain ranges to the north and vast deserts to the south. The Crescent's flat lands and an abundance of water made this location the birthplace of human civilization.
Term used by archaeologists and historians for the New Stone Age of the Middle East, about 8000-4200 BC. The Neolithic Age witnessed radical changes in human culture laying the foundations of civilization—changes significant enough for scholars to refer to a Neolithic Revolution.
Writing system invented by the Sumerians around 3100 BC. Wedgelike shapes were pressed into wet clay, or inscribed on stone or metal to represent words.
Term for the earliest Egyptian writing system (Greek hieros, "sacred," and glyphe, "carving"). It was pictographic, relying on representations of common objects and geometric symbols.
God-king of the ancient Egyptians, to whom the people gave credit for the Nile's annual flood.
Eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, which forms the western boundary of Syria-Palestine. The Levant extends for four hundred miles and became the crossroads for all trade and travel in the ancient world.
Large fissure in the surface of the earth. The Jordan Rift, which extends from north of the Sea of Galilee through the Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea to the shores of the Red Sea, is an important topographical feature of Syria-Palestine.
Latin term meaning "the way of the sea," which comes from Isaiah 9:1 and refers to an international road running along the Levant coast. This highway was used throughout biblical times and was located near some of the most important cities of antiquity. The Vulgate rendered Isaiah's phrase as Via Maris, which was used in later times to designate the whole network of roadways from Egypt through Syria-Palestine into Mesopotamia.
Latin translation of the Bible written by Jerome about AD 400. This translation includes the Apocrypha, the collection of esteemed Jewish books not found in the Old Testament nor accepted by Jews or Protestant Christians.
Term used by archaeologists and historians for the Old Stone Age (before 14,000 BC). Artifacts from Paleolithic sites are primitive stone tools shaped by humans. During this period, people lived in open-air sites and the terraces of ancient river beds. The Paleolithic was a pre-cave culture.
Term used by archaeologists and historians for the Middle Stone Age, about 14,000-8000 BC. The Mesolithic Age witnessed the first cave culture. The switch from life in the open to the shelter of caves was perhaps caused by climate changes.
Term used by archaeologists and historians for the last of the stone ages in the Middle East, about 4200-3300 BC. During the Chalcolithic Age, stone was displaced by copper as the dominant material of tools and weapons. The Chalcolithic Age and its immediate predecessor, the Neolithic Age, were the earliest sedentary cultures of human history. Chalcolithic sites have yielded copper implements used by inhabitants who appear to have lived a nomadic village mode of existence.
Term used by archaeologists and historians of the ancient Near East for the period in which iron displaced bronze as the metal used for tools and weaponry (about 1200-332 BC). This period is marked by the rise of the first genuinely world empires, all from a Mesopotamian base: Assyria, Babylonia, and Persia. The Iron Age is commonly subdivided into three periods: Iron Age I (1200-930 BC), Iron Age II (930-539 BC), and Iron Age III (539-332 BC). This was the period of Israel's monarchy, exile, and restoration.
Early Bronze Age
Term used by archaeologists and historians of the ancient Near East to refer to the third millennium BC, also called, in Palestine, the Canaanite Age (about 3300-2000 BC). This was an age of major new developments across the ancient Near East. In Syria-Palestine, the Early Bronze Age witnessed a sudden flourishing of population and urbanization. There was rapid transition from life in unwalled villages to fortifications at a number of sites.
Middle Bronze Age
Term used by archaeologists and historians for the period of Amorite incursions across the ancient Near East, initiating a new era (about 2000-1550 BC). After an initial period of decline in Syria-Palestine, the Amorite culture brought a resurgence of sedentary life and the new development of urban centers. New Amorite kingdoms in Babylonia during this period were to play a major role in ancient Near Eastern history. This was also Israel's patriarchal period.
Hebrew term (běrit) describing binding relationships between human partners, or between God and humans. The concept has a legal background and describes an agreement between two parties, where no such agreement existed by nature. Such agreements had binding obligations on both parties. This is a rich theological concept in the Bible, since God commits himself to covenant relationships with humans in which he accepts obligations.
Late Bronze Age
Term used by archaeologists and historians for the period of internationalism and communication in the ancient Near East, about 1550-1200 BC. The Late Bronze Age is marked by Egypt's powerful New Kingdom, which exerted considerable influence on the coastal areas of Syria-Palestine. This was the period of Israel's exodus from Egypt, wilderness wanderings, and conquest of Canaan.
Term referring to Egypt during the time of Moses and the exodus.
Any language used as a trade or communication medium by people of different language groups. In the Late Bronze Age, the Babylonian dialect of Akkadian was used. In the first millennium BC Aramaic became the international language.
Nearly four hundred letters found at El Amarna, Egypt, between Memphis and Thebes, dating from the fourteenth century BC. Most are in Akkadian and are written by kings and vassal rulers of Syria-Palestine to Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) and his father, Amenhotep III.
Newcomers to the ancient Near East around 1200 BC. Presumably fleeing from the mainland of Greece after the fall of Troy, these peoples fled along the coasts of the Mediterranean, disrupting all the major powers of the day, notably Egypt and the Hittites. One group of these sea peoples was the Philistines, who settled on the southwestern coast of Syria-Palestine and played a major role in Old Testament times.
Worship of Yahweh, the one true God, who made his covenant with Israel. Mosaic Yahwism was marked by strict adherence to the Law given to Moses at Mount Sinai. During the years of the divided monarchy, Omri of Israel and his son Ahab combined Mosaic Yahwism with Canaanite Baalism in order to gain greater political control, as the northern kingdom was plagued by political instability.
Baal-worshiping religion of the Canaanites with which the Hebrew faith experienced significant ideological conflict during Ahab's reign, as Ahab's religious apostasy led him to confuse Baal, the Canaanite fertility god, with Yahweh and thus to desecrate the unique covenant relationship between Yahweh and Israel.
Austronesian settlers on the Philippine Islands c. 4000 BCE originated where?
one similarity in the mesopotamian, egyptian, harrapan, and ancient chinese civilizations was that they each developed
Which groups had the most influence on the government, culture, and beliefs of the Byzantine Empire?
What did anicent Egyptians often call their country?
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