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Ural Mountains

The __________________ form Europe's eastern boundary and separate the Northern European and Western Siberian Plains
Some geographers see the ______________ as a dividing line between Europe and Asia


Some consider Europe and Asia to be a single continent called __________.

Caucasus Mountains

Mt. Elbrus, highest point in the Caucasus, and Europe's highest peak is a long-dormant volcano.

Lake Baikal

A lake that is over one mile deep. This lake has the only freshwater seal.

Caspian Sea

The ______________ "sea" is actually a saltwater lake that stretches 750 miles from north to south, making it the largest inland sea in the world.

Volga River

the longest river on the European continent, drains the Caspian Sea basin. The _________ begins in Moscow and flows southward for about 2,300 miles until it arrives at the Caspian. This important waterway carries about 60 percent of Russia's river traffic.

Aral Sea

the _________, which lies east of the Caspian Sea, is a saltwater lake. Since the 1960s, the _____ has lost about 87 percent of its water volume. In 2005, Kazakhstan built a dam to separate the smaller North ___________ from the South ___________, which is saltier and more polluted.


The siberian cat is native to ______, and is also the national cat of Russia.

Natural Resources

huge reserves of coal and deposits of iron ore, leading producer of oil and gas, and rivers make it one of the worlds largest producers of hydroelectric power

huge deposits of petroleum

Around the Caspian sea has what natural resource?


Russia's forests hold what fraction of the world's timber regions?


Union of Soviet Socialist Revolution, lasted from 1924-1991, contained 15 republics that were "voluntary" association, government controlled all aspects of people's lives (employment, food, media), largest centrally planned economy in the world

USSR religion

USSR was officially atheist, Christianity and Islam had the largest followers, During WWII Orthodox Church was no longer suppressed since it was seen as a uniting factor

Karl Marx

marxism, was living in Great Britain during the Industrial Revolution - this shaped his feelings about the way society should work

Marx's Theory of Communism

conflict over material goods, wrote the "Communist Manifesto"

'haves' vs. 'have nots'
Capitalists vs. workers, or 'proletariat'

Revolution! Socialism... then communism

Czar Nicholas II

______ was the last tsar (czar) of Russia. He was deposed during the Russian Revolution and executed with his family by the Bolsheviks.


Believed in Karl Marx's ideals concerning class conflict
His goal was to lead the revolution and not wait for it.
He became the leader of the Bolsheviks, also known as the Communists.

Bolsheviks (communists)

nationalized all private land


secret police that enforced policies

Civil War

1917-1923 the __________ broke out between the Red army and the counter-revolutionary armies led by former tsarist officers - the White army.

New Economic Policy

(NEP) announced in 1922.


Losif Vissarionovich
adopted the name __________: "Man of Steel"
His great ambition was to turn the Soviet Union into an industrial nation

Five Year Plans

to build up Russia's industry, Stalin devised the first series of _____________.


this year brought terror and opportunity


millions of people were sent to ______ in Siberia for irrational reasons. Ex. someone was 10 minutes late to work and was sent to a gulag.

Late 1930s

by the late ______________, USSR was the world's third largest industrial power


German invasion of USSR.


In WWII, the USSR _______ with the United States and Britain.

World War II

After ____________, Russia (communist) let Eastern Europe countries decide their government.

Iron curtain

when nobody knew what Russia was doing


North Atlantic Treaty Organization
After WWII, USSR created this organization of communist nations to combat the power of _________.
Warsaw Pact

Mikhail Gorbachev

Glasnost (openness)
Perestroika (restructuring)
During his time as leader of USSR:
1989-Berlin Wall falls
1990-He wins a Noble Peace Prize
1991-First McDonalds opens
Soviet Union dissolves and he resigns as president

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