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Conjugated System

The overlap of unhybrdized p orbitals throughout a molecule

Delocalized Electrons

electrons move freely in the space between 3 or more nuclei


The merging of orbitals from different energy levels to form the same number of equivalent orbitals.


One of two or more substances with the same molecular formula.

Linear Arrangement

When the electron pairs are on the opposite side of the nucleus.

Mass Spectrometer

Uses a magnetic field to curve charged particles. It may be used to distinguish between isomers that have very similar properties.

Pi Bond

A chemical bond formed from side-by-side overlapping of two parallel "p" orbitals.

Planar Arrangement

When the electron pairs are in the same plane as the nucleus.


A concept in which we we assume that the actual distribution of electrons in a particle is the average of all the correct structures that can be written for that compound.

Shared pairs

electrons involved in bonding.

Sigma Bond

a single covalent bond that is formed when an electron pair is shared by the direct overlap of bonding orbitals


double or triple bonds between carbon atoms

Unshared pairs

pairs of electrons that are not involved in bonding.

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