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Special Education Laws
Terms in this set (72)
Timothy vs. Rochester School District (1989)
Court case required that children with disabilities must be provided a free and appropriate education without exception.
Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504
Federal law designed to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities; prohibits discrimination in education, employment, and community settings.
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Renamed Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA, 2004))
Law ensuring services to children with disabilities; children with disabilities should have the opportunity to receive a free and appropriate education public education, just like other children.
Six Major Principles of IDEA
1. Zero Reject
2. Protection in the evaluation process (non-bias testing)
3. Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
4. Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
5. Due Process Procedures (Procedural Safeguards)
6. Parent and Student Participation (shared decision making)
Four Key Purposes of IDEA
1. To ensure all children with disabilities are guaranteed a free and appropriate public education (FAPE)
2. To assist states in establishing early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities.
3. To ensure that educators and parents have the necessary tools to improve the education for all children with disabilities.
4. To assess the effectiveness of the education for children with disabilities.
No child with a disability may be excluded from a public education.
Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
The education of students with disabilities must be at the public expense based on the development of an IEP that includes related services.
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act 1990)
Based on Section 504, it extends civil rights to individuals with disabilities in prior sector employment, public services, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunication. These employment and public services must accommodate persons with disabilities in an appropriate and nondiscriminatory manner.
Board of Edu of the Hudson School District v. Rowley 1982
Case upheld that each child with a disability has a right to an individualized program and supportive services deemed appropriate and necessary.
Larry P. vs. Riles
Case ruled that IQ tests could not be used as the primary or sole basis of playing students in special programs.
Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens v. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 1972
Case established the right for all children with mental retardation to a free public education.
Hobson v. Hanson 1967
Case determined the tracking system for regular and special education students based on intelligence scores was unconstitutional for some populations of students and could not be used.
Mills v. Board of Edu 1972
Case that determined that financial problems can not be a reason for the lack of appropriate programs for children with disabilities.
Honig v. Doe 1988
Ruled that students with disabilities may not be excluded for misbehavior that is disability-related, but services could cease if the behavior was not related to the disability.
Irving Independence School District v. Tatro 1984
Case forced the school to provide non-physician required medical services to allow a physically impaired student to attend school.
At what age are states mandated to implement services for children in early childhood settings?
1. Inclusive and Consultative Model
2. Pulling and Integrated Model
3. Separate, Segregated Model
4. Private Setting
1. General Education Classroom
2. Resource Room
3. Self-Contained Program
4. Separate School
Makes changes in how the student accesses the environment or in instructional delivery.
This includes actual changes made to the curriculum, to the environment, or to expectation of the instructional task in order to meet the student's specific needs. This is often imposed when the task is above the student's ability level, so the reduce the expectations or content to support the severity or type of disability.
The concept that everything in the environment in learning and in products, should be accessible to everyone.
Under IDEA, what age group is qualified to receive early intervention services?
Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, which is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of children with disabilities.
What are the 7 steps of the assessment process?
4. Evaluation and Identification
5. Instructional Program Planning
7. Review and Evaluation
Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
The process of gathering information about problem behaviors of an individual student, used to evaluate the need for behavior intervention and a behavior plan.
ABA (Applied Behavior Analysis)
Analyzing behavior to determine how and why students respond to certain events, situations, or the environment; allows for the training of rewards and reinforcements to help the student learn the target behavior.
Armstrong v. Kline (1979)
Ordered schools to provide extended school year services for students with disabilities who may regress over long periods without attending formal school programs.
The extent that a previously learned behavior continues after the intervention to support it has ended.
Cedar Rapids v. Garrett F. (1999)
Ruled that medical services necessary to a student with a disability to access and benefit from special education must be provided by the school as long as the service does not require a physician.
When a behavior continues repeatedly beyond the typical endpoint and the student demonstrates difficulty switching tasks.
Knowledge of successful and appropriate language use, such as in conversation
The use of semantic and syntactic clues to aid in completing sentences.
Behavior modification method used in which the student is motivated to use a desired behavior in order to avoid a negative consequence.
The ability to use skills learned across various settings.
A strategy for helping a student and eventually fading out the support as he or she gains mastery.
Instruction using real-world projects and activities to allow students to discover and explore in a more relevant manner.
Adjective describing the perception of body position and movement.
Forest Grove School District v. T.A. (2009)
Court held that IDEA allows reimbursement for private special education services even when the child did not previously receive special education from the public school.
A technique in which student performance is reinforced so that the student will continue to perform more complex tasks in the sequence.
Meaning that language communicates that governs vocabulary development.
Foley v. Special School District of St. Louis County (1998)
Affirmed that public schools are not obligated to provide special education services if parents CHOOSE to place their child in a private school.
The degree to which a behavior is repeated.
An approach that identifies the skills to be taught and uses direct daily measure of the student's performance to acquire the skills.
The focus is on the student as an active and involved learner who constructs knowledge by using previously learned information.
Individualized Education Program
A written statement for each child with disability that details in-depth a child's disability and the reasons for why the child may need extra assistance, as well as annual goals for the student and a plan using available resources to achieve these goals.
Provides age appropriate activities that are discovery-based and interactive, such as Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP).
Abrahamson v. Hershman (1983)
Ruled that the training and education for a student with multiple disabilities, required in private residential placement, would be supported through district funds.
Behavior modification method in which the student is motivated to use a desired behavior because of the reward to be obtained.
Free and Appropriate Education
Least Restrictive Environment
Behavior Intervention Plans
Individualized Transition Plan
Individual Family Service Plan
Application of a learned behavior or skill to another setting.
How muscles coordinate movements with the information received through the environment by the senses.
A systematic approach of teaching with specific goals, active learner engagement, and positive reinforcement for student performance.
The ability of students to demonstrate concept knowledge by applying the information to other settings without prompts from the teacher.
Provides drill and practice for students who have problems with basic skill areas and with motivation issues.
Individualizing instruction to develop strengths and remediate weaknesses.
Transfer of Stimulus Control
Providing instructional prompts to aid in correct responses.
Providing positive reinforcement and confirmation to improve learning.
Arlington Central School District Board of Ed v. Pearl and Theodore Murphy (2006)
Supreme Court ruled that prevailing parents are not entitled to recover fees for services rendered by experts in IDEA actions.
Stimulus used in behavior management and behavior modification that occurs prior to the behavior and establishes the reason for the behavior.
Winkleman v. Parma City School District (2007)
Determined that parents may request their children's interest in special education cases and are not required to hire an attorney.
Education Consultation Act (1982)
Merged the federal office of Gifted and Talented with other federal programs and states; received block grants to determine which programs and students to support.
Oberti v. Board of Education (1993)
Ruled to support a family preference to educate a child with mental retardation in the general education classroom.
Supports students with disabilities who have oral language problems.
Voice Recognition System
Replaces the keyboard and the input device
A type of communication in which a person provides assistance to a student by pointing to symbols or letters.
Behavior Rating Scales
Evaluation tool that lists specific observable behaviors to assess the severity, frequency, and type of exhibited behaviors completed by staff, parents, or students.
Department of Education v. Katherine D. (1984)
Ruled home bound instruction for a student with multiple health problems did not comply with the LRE and required the student be placed in a class with non-disabled children and receive the necessary related medical services.
The unconscious perception of movement and spatial position from stimuli within the body itself.
Concentrates on levels of adequate communication and language that a person needs to live independently in the community.
Instills skills used to make a basic need or desire known
Ability to communicate thoughts, feelings, and ideas through words, gestures, sign systems, assistive devices, etc.
Team review of the relationship between the student's inappropriate behavior and the disability, required under IDEA when a student violates a code of conduct.
Written agreement between the student and teacher that outlines the expected performance and the consequences and reinforcers used.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Special Education Concepts
Special Education Law
Special Education Laws & Acts
Praxis: Special Education
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