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Terms in this set (35)
A feeling of uneasiness, uncertainty, and helplessness. Anxiety is the normal emotional response to a real or imagined threat or stressor.
Uncontrolled anxiety often leads to:
Ineffective and maladaptive behaviors.
Types of anxiety:
A learned response to an anticipated event.
Occurs when an individuals coping abilities become overwhelmed and emotional control is lost.
A learned component of a personality.
Types of anxiety responses; physical responses:
Muscle tension, fidgeting, headaches, and problems with sleep. Higher levels of anxiety trigger the fight or flight reaction and result in nausea, dizziness, sweating, increased heart rate, and elevated blood pressure.
Measures taken to reduce anxiety.
Types of coping mechanisms:
-PIES is a good way to remember! :)
Coping methods; Physical:
Include efforts to directly face and handle the problem. Exercise, stretching, yoga, etc.
Coping methods; intellectual:
Aimed at making the threat less meaningful by changing one's perception.
Coping method; spiritual:
Attending religious services or communing with nature can reduce anxiety. Many cultural rituals also help individuals cope.
Coping mechanisms; emotional:
Responses include crying, communicating, or sharing ones anxious feelings and using ego defense mechanisms.
Psychological strategies that help to lesson anxious feelings. Used when a person feels threatened.
When one's ability to cope with anxiety is overwhelmed. Defense mechanisms are no longer useful.
Too little anxiety can result in a lack of attention or focus in important situations.
Too much anxiety can overwhelm and immobilize an individual and result in an inability to accomplish important task.
Generalized anxiety disorder:
Diagnosed when an individual's anxiety is broad, long lasting, and excessive. It is primarily a disturbance in the emotional area of functioning.
A brief period of intense fear or discomfort and is always accompanied by various physical and emotional reactions. The duration of the actual attack is short. Panic attacks usually last 1 to 15 minutes with a peak in anxiety after about 10 minutes.
Panic attack criteria; must have at least four of the following symptoms:
1. Palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate.
Trembling or shaking. 3. Feelings of shortness of breath, smothering.
3. Feeling of choking.
4. Chest pain or discomfort.
5. Nausea or abdominal distress.
6. Feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded or faint.
7. Derealization or depersonalization.
8. Fear of losing control or going crazy.
9. Fear of dying.
11. Chills or hot flashes.
Anxiety about possible situations in which a panic attack may occur. People with agoraphobia avoid people, places, or events from which escape would be difficult or embarrassing.
Treatment for panic disorders has three goals:
1. Educate clients about the nature of a disorder. 2. Block the panic attacks pharmacologically.
3. Assist clients in developing more adaptive ways of coping with their anxieties.
Helps individuals identify their emotions and behaviors.
Allows them to explore social or personal difficulties.
Two other important therapeutic measures for clients who experience panic disorders:
Education and emotional support.
An internal fear reaction.
A distressing persistent thought.
A distressing recurring behavior.
Obsessive compulsive disorder:
The person is consumed by self destructive, anxiety-reducing thoughts and actions. Symptoms can occur as early as 3 years of age but usually begin and adolescence.
Post traumatic stress disorder:
Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder have been exposed to a traumatic experience outside the realm of normal life experiences at some time in their lives. They experienced intense fear, or helplessness. They relive the traumatic event.
Clients learn to cope with one anxiety-provoking stimulus at a time until the stressor is no longer associated with anxiety.
The method for treating phobias rapidly and repeatedly exposes clients to the feared object or situation until anxiety levels diminish.
Cognitive behavioral therapy:
Designed to help clients learn how their illogical thinking leads to maladaptive behaviors.
SSRIs and anti-depressants:
Used to treat OCD.
Keep brain cells from reabsorbing serotonin.
Weight gain, insomnia.
Prozac. Fluboxamine. Paroxetine. Citalopram. Sertraline.
Dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, worsens urinary retention, and increase risk of seizures.
Do not stop abruptly!
dizziness, confusion, headache, tremors, insomnia, dry mouth, anorexia, nausea/ vomiting, and diarrhea.
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