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"the INTENTIONAL infliction of SOME TYPE OF HARM upon others who are motivated to avoid it"
(verbal + physical)
Emotional VS. Instrumental Aggression
Emotional or hostile = driven by anger, performed as an end in itself
Instrumental = a means to an end (random)
ex...shoot cashier to get money
Instinct Theories (biological)
FREUD - 1st person to propose theory of aggression
--LIBIDO= want to live & reproduce
--after WWII added concept of the Thanatos or "death wish"
---hurt other ppl. instead of self
-ethologist (animals) - like all other species
-aggression is functional
*helps protect territory
*guarantees survival of the fittest
(while we developed weapons, didn't develop regression against them)
Opposition to Instinct Theories
w/ mom - 85% killed the mouse
themselves - 45% killed the mouse
w/ rats - 17% killed the mouse
*Bio doesn't explain why some are more aggressive*
*****shows environmental learning*****
FRUSTRATION - AGGRESSION THEORY (DOLLARD)
look at environment (not bio)
-aggression is always a consequence of frustration
-frustration always leads to aggression
butted in line for copy machine
2nd - MORE AGGRESSIVE
*when something stops you from getting what you want
-behavior whose goal is injury of person toward whom it is directed
--verbal and physical
=frustration builds up until you explode
1. remove frustration
2. catharsis - let aggression out on something else
frustrated w/ boss... kick someone else
**research does NOT support catharsis**
THEORY OF AGGRESSION CUES
frustration -> anger -> aggression
-aggression paradigm *MOST RELIED ON*
subject told doing -
*get frustrated at subject- shock subject - measure volts and length
DV = amount & length of shock = aggression
BERKOWITZ & LEPAGE
room w/ gun
room w/ badminton racket
GUN = gave more shock
"it's the trigger that pulls the finger"
pornography and aggression - ZILLMAN
-violent boxing = 2nd most shock
-sexually explicit = 1st (most shock)
Excitation - Transfer THEORY
if you're angry + you're further aroused, more anger
pornography and aggression - Malamouth & Donnerstein
aggressive erotica ; direct link to violence against women
-fantasize more about rape
-have reduced sensitivity to rape
-would commit rape if they wouldn't be punished
DRUGS & AGGRESSION
alcohol = 1/2 murders in US
Taylor and colleagues
-large amts. of alcohol increases aggressive beh. especially if subject is angered or threatened (reduces sensitivity to other ppl's pain)
-large amts. of marijuana reduce aggressive beh.
BANDURA - Two ways to learn aggression
1. reinforcement - rewarded for tackling in football
-more aggressive later in life
-act aggressively for attention
-beat child - take candy - rewarded
2. Modeling - kids are more likely to imitate same sex/ someone we admire
(son/father ; daughter/mom)
--imitate cartoon characters
VIOLENT MEDIA AND AGGRESSION
-kids watch TV or play video games 7.5 hours per day
-avg. 16 year old has witnessed 13,000 "murders"
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