Philosophy Final Exam
Terms in this set (120)
The doctrine that the world can be understood in scientific terms without recourse to spiritual or supernatural explanations.
An appeal to logic; one of Aristotle's three rhetorical appeals.
The doctrine that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience.
The presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.
The presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact.
"Doctrine of multiplicity", often used in opposition to monism ("doctrine of unity") and dualism ("doctrine of duality"). The term has different meanings in metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology.
Way of teaching developed by Socrates that used a question-and-answer format to force students to use their reason to see things for themselves.
Abstract entities that exist independently of the sensible world.
The Allegory of the Cave written by Plato, men were chained to ground, staring at shadows, one man broke free and realized there was a whole other world besides that.
Ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties. A thing-in-itself is a property-bearer that must be distinguished from the properties it bears.
A type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations.
Descartes, doubt everything and use deductive reasoning. Reasoning based on facts. Combined with empiricism to create scientific method.
Attribute or set of attributes that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity.
Attribute which may or may not belong to a subject, without affecting its essence.
The branch of philosophy that examines the nature of reality, including the relationship between mind and matter, substance and attribute, fact and value.
A philosophy which suggests that nothing can ever be known for certain.
Philosophy in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century C.E. to the Renaissance in the 16th century.
"Defenders of the Faith." Christians who worked hard to dispel the false rumors about Christianity and to make Christianity appear both reasonable and acceptable to non-Christians.
Pronounced toh-leh leh-geh, latin imperative to lift or take up and to read. Chanted by an angelic voice in a divine message to Augustine of Hippo.
A style of Christian life that stresses communal living and communal worship along with private prayer, silence, poverty, chastity, and obedience.
Christian-dominated Western Europe of the Middle Ages.
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
Experiences and thoughts that come natural to us, leads us to certainty that God exists, we are limited bc of sin so God must help us understand.
St. Augustine of Hippo was an Algerian-Roman philosopher and theologian of the late Roman / early Medieval period. He is one of the most important early figures in the development of Western Christianity, and was a major figure in bringing Christianity to dominance in the previously pagan Roman Empire.
Rejected Aquinas' Medieval Synthesis of knowledge (rejected the via media split faith and reason).
Thomas Aquinas' vision of reconciliation.
Go with the theory that makes the fewest assumptions.
Dante's most famous work, tells of his journey through hell.
"Rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
Philosophy of Plato that posits preexistent Ideal Forms of which all earthly things are imperfect models.
Total depravity - Unconditional election - Limited atonement - Irresistible grace - Perseverance of saints
The doctrine that knowledge derives from experience.
Book containing many of Francis Bacon's Writings.
Cogito, ergo sum
"I think therefore I am" Descartes argues that one must doubt everything that one cannot be absolutely sure of. Descartes contends that the only thing humans can be sure of is their own existence. From there on they must form clear and distinct ideas to discover truth. For example, I have a clear and distinct idea of a perfect being. Thus the perfect being, or God, must exist.
John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas.
Esse est percipi
"To be is to be perceived"; Berkeley's idea that everything around us is nothing but our ideas.
Age of Enlightenment contract that specifically focuses on nation not individual; written by Rousseou.
A concept developed by the philosopher Immanuel Kant as an ethical guideline for behavior. In deciding whether an action is right or wrong a person should evaluate the action in terms of what would happen if everybody else in the same situation, or category, acted the same way.
In Kant's epistemology. things as they are in themselves;this is always beyond the limits of human perception and knowing.
Observable facts; subjects of scientific investigation.
The theory that nature has no objective existence independent of the minds that perceive it.
God/mind spirit, Hegel manifest itself through human institution.
The question and answer method used by Socrates to arrive at knowledge by exposing truths already implicitly known and by challenging the contradictions and flawed reasoning of opposing viewpoints.
The idea, according to Karl Marx, that change and development in history results from the conflict between social classes. Economic forces impel human beings to behave in socially determined ways.
Glorified nature and celebrated individuality; emotional rather than rational; intuitive rather than analytic.
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.
An ethical system stating that the greatest good for the greatest number should be the overriding concern of decision makers.
A philosophy based on the idea that people give meaning to their lives through their choices and actions.
Aesthetic, ethical, religious
Kierkegaard's stages of development of human freedom.
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
The total rejection of religious or moral beliefs.
Persian prophet who founded Zoroastrianism.
A philosophy which focuses only on the outcomes and effects of processes and situations.
Discipline concerned with the proper theory and practice of textual interpretation.
Scripture study that looks to the various early manuscripts of the biblical texts.
The ways in which an institution engenders acceptance, validity, or commitment from individuals and other institutions.
A term encompassing the forms of social organization that characterize industrialized societies, including the decline of tradition, an increase in individualism, and a belief in progress, technology, and science.
Overarching story that answers the big questions of life.
A social mechanism of control where people know that while they are not watched all the time, they may be watched at any time.
A movement in art, philosophy, and the social sciences that argues that it is impossible to study reality objectively. It rejects the grand theoretical claims of the modern era and stresses the possibility of multiple interpretations in social inquiry, the arts, and politics.
"You can't step in the same river twice." Declared the primal element to be fire, which is ever changing and eternal.
A Greek philosopher and mathematician, this man was credited with the discovery that numbers are useful for more than counting physical things.
Believed that the world was a single unchanging, unmoving object whose order could be known through human reason.
A group of philosopher teachers who believed strongly in individualism, and that laws were created so that the weak would benefit rather than the strong. They were against democracy, and shared ideas similar to those of Plato.
"Man is the measure of all things." Sophist; believed that whether a thing is right or wrong, good or bad, must always be considered in relation to a person's need.
An Athenian philosopher who thought that human beings could lead honest lives and that honor was far more important than wealth, fame, or other superficial attributes.
A disciple of Socrates whose cornerstone of thought was his theory of Forms, in which there was another world of perfection.
Believed, unlike his teacher Plato, that philosophers could rely on their senses to provide accurate information about the world.
Ancient group of followers of the Greek philosopher Epicurus, who maintained that the gods were removed from the concerns of human life and so were not to be feared or placated. Happiness came in establishing a peaceful harmony with other like-minded people and enjoying the simple pleasures of daily existence.
Adherents of this Greek philosophy emphasized an inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline and personal bravery.
Pagan school of thought that believed in a Supreme Being who creates through an emanation of lesser beings, including the logos.
Paul of Tarsus
A Jew from Asia Minor that played the most influential role in the spread of Christianity. Paul never met Jesus but he had a vision one day of speaking to him.
1st father of Latin Christianity; converted to Christianity by martyrs; defended use of old testament.
An apologist from the second century. He wrote to the outsiders of Christianity, to explain and defend his beliefs. He used logos to show that the Greek philosophy used the same logos as in Christian theology. However, in Christian theology, logos meant that the word became flesh and therefore Christians' knowledge is higher and more precise of that of Greek Philosophers; showing that they are complementary.
A religious cult that viewed reality as a constant struggle between spirit (good) and matter (evil).
One of the great fathers of the early Christian church, North African Christian theologian; made major contributions in incorporating elements of classical philosophy into Christianity.
A philosopher of the early 6th century. Became a consul in 510 in the kingdom of the Ostrogoths. He was suspected of conspiring with the Eastern Roman Empire and was imprisoned and eventually put to death by King Theodoric the Great. While imprisoned he composed his Consolation of Philosophy, which became one of the most popular and influential works of the Middle Ages.
He developed a theological method which sought to deepen theological truth with the aid of reason. Many people were disturbed by this.
Albert the Great
The famous teacher of Thomas Aquinas who introduced him to Aristotelian philosophy, which played a large part in his later writing Summa Theologica.
Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology.
English philosopher and theologian, opposed much of Aquinas and rejected the Pope's power in the secular realm, nominalist, wrote "Summa Logicae."
Siger of Brabant
Siger of Brabant was a 13th-century philosopher from the southern Low Countries who was an important proponent of Averroism. He was considered a radical by the conservative members of the Roman Catholic Church, but it is suggested that he played as important a role as his contemporary Thomas Aquinas in the shaping of Western attitudes towards faith and reason.
Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society.
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin.
A German monk who, in 1517, took a public stand against the sale of indulgences by nailing his 95 Theses to the door of the castle church in Wittenburg; he believed that people did not need priests to interpret the Bible for them; his actions began the Reformation.
Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits; this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.
The Frenchman was influenced by Luther and converted religions and became a highly influential Protestant leader. His "The Institutes of the Christian Religion," expressed his view on Christian teachings as faith oriented.
English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. "Novum Organum". Inductive reasoning.
Copernicus and Galileo
Copernicus proposed that the earth revolves around the sun, Galileo promoted this idea, was tried by the church.
French philosopher; wrote Discourse on Method; 1st principle "I think therefore I am"; believed mind and matter were completely separate; known as father of modern rationalism.
Defined the laws of motion and gravity. Tried to explain motion of the universe.
English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
A french mathematician and scientist. He believed that religious faith was necessary because reason alone could not satisfy peoples, hopes and aspiration. Unity and Truth. wrote Pensees (means to think).
"The only reality is in the mind" Nothing exists if it is not perceived. Physical qualities projected on environment. Ideas are the only things we experience directly and are therefore the only things we can be sure of.
Known for his independent invention of calculus and the ensuing priority dispute with Isaac Newton. Most modern calculus notation, including the integral sign and the use of d to indicate a differential, originated with Leibniz. He also invented binary numbers and did fundamental work in establishing boolean algebra and symbolic logic.
Scottish philosopher whose skeptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses.
"Social Contract" he explained an ideal society where each community member would vote on issues and majority would become one law.
German Enlightenment philosopher; he wrote the Critique of Pure Reason, believed in uniting reason with experience, that the mind is a filter, that we experience things simply through our senses, and that reason is the source of morality; he was particularly prolific in the philosophy of ethics and metaphysics.
German philosopher who wrote and influenced many others (like Marx) with his writings. He is most often characterized by his 'three-step process' of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis.
Advocate of liberalism, absolute freedom of opinion and people needed protection from govt. censorship and the tyranny of the majority, supported of women's rights. created the Harm Principle
Danish philosopher, founder of existentianalism, said "truth is subjectivity", religion is a personal matter, and relationships with God require suffering, wrote "Either/Or", The Sickness Unto Death."
A socialist theorist who predicted that socialism would come into being via a working-class revolution. He is significant because his writing introduced communism into the world. Argued for materialism.
English naturalist and scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in 'On The Origin of the Species."
German philosopher who said that "God is dead," that lackadaisical people killed him with their false values. Said that Christianity and all religion is a "slave morality." He also said that the only hope for mankind was to accept the meaninglessness of human life, and to then use that meaninglessness as a source of personal integrity and liberation.
Studied how humans use perception to function in our environment.
Austrian philosopher and a logical empiricist who argued in Essay on Logical Philosophy that great philosophical questions like god freedom and morality were "quite literally senseless."
French existentialist who stated that in spite of the general absurdity of human life, individuals could make rational sense out of their own existence through meaningful personal decision making.
"Theres nothing outside of the Text." French philosopher who explained in broad philosophical terms that work of critic was said to be as much as a creative enterprise as literary or artistic creation itself.
He wrote The Postmodern Condition in which he reject all-encompassing "metanarratives". Knowledge is local & culturally relative.
French philosopher who was deeply concerned with who is and who is not allowed to speak in a society.
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