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4.6 BYA

Earth born

3.5 BYA

heterotrophic, prokaryotic, anaerobic bacteria

fossil record, homologous structures, embryological comparisons

evolutionist's proof


Christian's proof


famous print fossil

Archaeopteryx, platypus

transitional organisms


oldest bird have fossil evidence of

dinosaur, reptile

what oldest bird similar to

homologous structures

x-ray analysis of structures that suggest likeness among different organisms, suggesting their evolution on the tree of life

humerus to radius, ulna to wrist bone to phalanges

homologous structures similarities

share branch on tree of life

homologous structures suggest

static change

first man placed on planet type of change

dynamic change

slow change


what cells are at 6 weeks

common ancestor

what embryos suggest


# of years between when Darwin gets back and when he writes book

Christian, Earth 1000s

George Cuvier beliefs

father of paleontology and Catastrophism

what George Cuvier is

George Cuvier

shows evidence of major, sudden extinctions in past

catastrophes, new animals, new species higher in rocks


fossils tell different time periods, animals at different time periods

George Cuvier's influence on Darwin

Principles of Geology

Charles Lyell's book

father of uniformitarianism

what Charles Lyell is

Principles of Geology by Charles Lyell

what Darwin reads on HMS Beagle

James Hutton

Darwin writes explanations to earlier comments by ______

sediment to sea, solid rocks

after elements break down things, ______

plate tectonics & earthquakes

expose ocean fossils over time

planet older than religious beliefs

Charles Lyell's influence on Darwin

economist, historian, not scientist

what Thomas Malthus is

more children born than people dying, humans reproduce faster than food supply

Thomas Malthus's essay on

world census

Malthus uses ______ for essay

famine, warfare, disease

keep pop in check

natural selection, nature has indirect control on pop

Thomas Malthus's influence on Darwin

inheritance of acquired traits

Jean Baptiste Lamark's belief

Jean Baptiste Lamark

if right scientifically, father of evolution

Jean Baptiste Lamark

1st to say different species from common ancestor & all branches suggest relatedness

acquired trait

trait you get during lifetime

Jean Baptiste Lamark

thinks some species have desire to want to change; some willingly create change on body & pass on to offspring (can't prove)

descent by modification and common ancestor are possible

Jean Baptiste Lamark's influence on Darwin


HMS Beagle sails

western coast of Ecuador

Galapagos Islands off ______


# of different types of finches

dry, barren, lower waterfalls, seeds in hard husks

bigger beaks

tropical, more rain, soft berries

smaller beaks


formation of new species & diversity exhibited by Tree of Life


group according to similar looks, assume they're same species

biological species concept

concept that defines species members of population that can successfully reproduce with each other & have fertile offspring


#1 driving force behind speciation

habitat isolation

leave 1 place, go another

lack of resources, predators, competition

makes species leave

allopatric speciation

another name for habitat isolation

behavioral isolation

unrecognized mating call

temporal isolation

mate at different times of year

mechanical isolation

incompatible genitalia or plants that cannot successfully pollinate each other

Bernard Kettlewell

moth guy

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