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the formation of new species in populations that are geographically isolated from one another


the formation of new species in populations that live in the same geographic area


offspring that results from the mating of individuals from two different species or from two true-breeding varieties of the same species

punctuated equilibrium

in the fossil record, long periods of apparent stasis, in which a species undergoes little or no morphological change, interrupted by relatively brief periods of sudden change


describing the group of bacteria that have a cell wall that is structurally less complex and contains more peptidoglycan than the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria. ______ ______ are usually less toxic than gram-negative bacteria.


describing the group of bacteria that have a cell wall that is structurally more complex and contains less peptidoglycan than the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria. ____ ______ bacteria are often more toxic than gram-positive bacteria.


an oriented movement toward or away from a stimulus


a catbolic pathway for organic molecules, using oxygen as the final electron acceptor in an electron transport chain and ultimately producing ATP. This is the most efficent catabolic pathway and is carried out in most eukaryotic cells and many prokaryotic organisms.


a catabolic pathway in which inorganic molecules other than oxygen accept electrons at the "down-hill" end of electron transport chains.


an organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to anaerobic respiration or fermentation if oxygen is not present.

nitrogen fixation

the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Biological _______ _______ is carried out by certain prokaryotes, some of which have mutalistic relationships with plants


an organism that lives in environmental conditions so extreme that few other species can survive there. _________s include extreme haophiles (salt lovers) and extreme thermophiles (heat lovers).


an organism that produces methane as a waste product of the way it obtains energy. All known _______s are in domain Archaea.


an organism taht abosrobs nutrients from nonliving organic material such as corpses, fallen plant material, and the wastes of living organisms and converts them to inorganic forms; a detritivore


the larger participant in a symbiotic relationship, often providing a home and food source for the smaller symbiont


an ecological relationship between organisms of two different species taht live dtogether in direct and intimate contact


a symbiotic relationship in which both the participants benifit


an organism, virus, viroid, or prion that causes disease


the use of organisms to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems


an organism that is capable of both photosynthesis and heterotrophy

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