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70-687 Windows 8.1 Glossary
From Pearson's MCSA 70-687 Cert Guide: Configuring Microsoft Windows 8.1
Terms in this set (263)
An installer package file format used by Windows. Its name comes from the program's original title, Microsoft Installer, which has since changed to Windows Installer. MSI files are used for installation, storage, and removal of programs.
The installation file for a patch or hotfix used to update an application that uses Windows Installer.
A transform file that performs a scripting-like function for a Windows Installer package. It contains software configuration options, allows custom parameters to be used for the installation, and is used to configure test software.
A set of protocol standards, defined by IEEE, for wireless digital communications. There have been several defined: 802.11a, 802.11b,802.11g, and 802.11n.
Access control list (ACL)
The list of permissions granted or denied that is attached to a file or folder.
Account lockout policy
A policy setting that locks a user out of a computer if he enters a password incorrectly a specified number of times. This setting is designed to thwart an intruder who uses a password-cracking utility in an attempt to compromise a user account.
A Windows 8.1 tool that consolidates security, performance, and maintenance issues affecting your computer into a single panel and provides links to obtain more information and troubleshoot problems that might be affecting your computer.
A partition or volume on a hard disk that has been identified as the primary partition from which the operating system is booted.
An Internet Explorer 11 tool that enables you to disable or allow browser add-ons or undesired ActiveX controls.
Optional additional features that can be installed in Internet Explorer and provide enhanced functionality. Websites often download and install add-ons to your browser, sometimes without your knowledge and consent.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
A TCP/IP protocol that is used to resolve the IP address of the destination computer to the physical or Media Access Control (MAC) address.
Admin Approval mode
The default action mode of Windows 8.1, in which all user accounts—even administrative ones—run without administrative privileges until such privileges are required. When this happens, the user is presented with a UAC prompt.
A series of shares that are automatically created when Windows 8.1 is first installed. These shares are useful for administrating remote computers on the network.
AES is the Advanced Encryption Standard, a cryptographic provider used in Windows for securing data on the network and at rest. The AES standard is an open standard defined by the National Institute of Science and Technology, and can utilize a number of strong encryption algorithms. AES supports key sizes of 128, 192, or 256 bits.
A notification provided by the Data Collector Sets feature of Performance Monitor that informs you when the value of a counter has exceeded a preconfigured level.
Anycast IPv6 address
A type of IPv6 address that is utilized only for a destination address assigned to a router.
The process of ensuring that a program or application written for a previous Windows operating system will function properly within Windows 8.1.
Application Compatibility Manager
A component of the ACT that enables you to collect and analyze compatibility data so that you can remedy any issues before you deploy a new operating system such as Windows 8.1.
Application Compatibility Toolkit (ACT)
A Microsoft resource that helps administrators identify the compatibility of their applications with Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8.1, thereby helping organizations to produce a comprehensive software inventory.
An update to the older Software Restriction Policies, providing new enhancements that enable you to specify exactly what users are permitted to run on their desktops according to unique file identities. You can also specify the users or groups permitted to execute these applications.
A series of programs included by default with Windows 8.1 that enable you to access information rapidly from the Internet, or features on your computer such as pictures, music, calendar, maps, Internet Explorer, and so on. You can add additional apps at any time from the Windows Store.
An application virtualization technology used to stream applications without installing them locally. The only local installation required is the App-V client, which enables virtual applications to run on Windows computers.
A security process that tracks the usage of selected network resources, typically storing the results in a log file.
Windows firewall rules support authenticated exceptions to allow authenticated users or computers to use a network connection that is otherwise blocked.
A security process that confirms the identity of a user, service, or device.
The security process and settings that allow access to a specific resource to a specific account.
Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)
The dynamic IPv4 addressing system used when DHCP is unavailable.
A disk partitioning scheme that uses partition tables supported by many other operating systems, containing primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives.
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)
The firmware application encoded in a computer that initializes the computer before the operating system is loaded. The BIOS manages basic hardware configuration.
A small application that runs on mobile computers and displays the percentage of battery power remaining as well as the power plan currently in use.
A command-line tool that enables you to manage and create new BCD stores and BCD boot entries.
A command-line tool that enables you to manage boot configuration data (BCD) stores in Windows Vista/7/8/8.1, Server 2008, and Server 2012 R2.
Technologies that measure and analyze human body characteristics, such as DNA, fingerprints, eye retinas and irises, voice patterns, and facial patterns, typically for authentication purposes.
A feature of Windows 8.1 Pro and Enterprise that enables you to encrypt the entire contents of your system or data partition. It is useful for protecting data stored on laptops, which are susceptible to theft.
BitLocker To Go
A component of BitLocker that enables you to encrypt the contents of a USB flash drive or portable hard drive.
Certificate authority is a trusted service that authenticates users and devices and signs certificates for identification and encryption purposes.
A space on the computer's hard disk that is set aside for holding offline copies of shared files and folders from a computer on the network.
A method of granting access to a user based on unique identification. Certificates represent a distinctive way to establish a user's identity and credentials.
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
An authentication protocol that uses a hashed version of a user's password so that the user's credentials are not sent over the wire in clear text.
A series of applications that lie along the right side of the Windows 8.1 interface. They enable you to access Search, Share, Start, Devices, and Settings.
A point-in-time state of a virtual machine, including hard disk, memory, and hardware configuration information.
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
A flexible method of stating IP addresses and masks without needing to classify the addresses. An example of the CIDR format is 192.168.1.0/24.
The Microsoft virtualization technology included in Windows 8.1 Pro and Windows 8.1 Enterprise.
Cloud Applications, storage, shared resources, and other services available over the Internet.
Services that are always available whenever a device is connected to the Internet from anywhere are typically referred to as being "in the cloud."
A feature of Internet Explorer 11 that enables websites designed for earlier versions of Internet Explorer to display properly in Internet Explorer 11.
Computer Management console
A pre-built set of Microsoft Management snap-ins that provides users with the most common set of administrative tools, such as Task Scheduler, Event Viewer, Local Users and Groups, Performance Monitor, Device Manager, Services, and several others.
The discrete attributes that make up the total of items required to authenticate a user, service, or device. Credentials are typically made up of an account name and password but can include many other attributes.
Data Collector Sets
A component of the Performance Monitor that records computer performance information into log files. This feature was known as Performance Logs and Alerts in Windows 2000/XP/Server 2003.
Data recovery agent
A specially configured user account that has the ability to decrypt drives and partitions that have been encrypted using BitLocker.
Unscrambling the data in an encrypted file through use of an algorithm so that the file can be read.
The term applied to the router that leads to other networks.
The application that is associated with a file of a given extension so that Windows uses this program to open the file whenever you double-click any file with this extension.
Data Execution Prevention, a security feature used to prevent buffer overflow exploits by marking memory with non-executable or data-only regions, and preventing any code execution from those regions.
A computer on which Windows 8.1, together with applications, has been freshly installed and to which user settings and data are to be restored using the USMT.
The specialized software component of an operating system that interfaces with a particular hardware component.
A tool from which you can manage all the hardware devices on your computer. It enables you to view and change device properties, update or roll back drivers, configure settings, and remove devices.
A Windows 8.1 application that acts as a home page for your hardware devices, listing all devices and enabling you to perform management tasks.
Also known as a child VHD, a VHD that contains only the differences between it and its parent VHD.
Direct Memory Access (DMA)
The process of data bypassing the CPU and accessing RAM directly, designed as channels; for example, a floppy drive uses DMA channel 2.
DirectAccess is a new feature in Windows Server that enables seamless connectivity to an organization network through the Internet without requiring a VPN.
Disk Management snap-in
A Microsoft Management Console snap-in that enables you to perform all management activities related to disks, partitions, and volumes.
A system of space limits for users on a volume formatted with NTFS. This is set up to ensure that all users have available space on which to store their files, preventing any one user from using all the available space.
A command-line tool that enables you to perform all management activities related to disks, partitions, and volumes. You can use this tool to script actions related to disk management.
Domain Name System (DNS)
A hierarchical naming system that is contained in a distributed database. DNS provides name resolution for IP addresses and DNS names.
A tool available in Internet Explorer 11 for managing files downloaded from websites.
The complete set of files that make up all the components needed for working with a hardware device or peripheral.
The digital signature that Microsoft adds to a third-party device driver to validate its usage.
An authentication method that includes multiple methods for a single authentication transaction. Often referred to as "something you have and something you know," when the factors include a device such as a smart card and a secret such as a password or PIN.
A term referring to the simultaneity of communications. Simultaneous two-way communication is full duplex, while two-way communications that can occur in only one direction at a time is half duplex.
A disk partitioning scheme supported by Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, and 8.1 as well as Windows Server 2008 R2 and 2012 R2 that contains dynamic volumes.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
The protocol in the TCP/IP protocol stack that negotiates the lease of an IP address from a DHCP server.
A VHD that gradually increases in size toward a configured maximum as data is added to it.
Extensible Authentication Protocol with Tunneled Transport Layer Security is a new protocol for Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows 8.1 that uses secure TLS connections to encrypt the authentication traffic during the VPN connection handshake.
Encrypting File System (EFS)
An advanced attribute setting of Windows 2000/XP/Vista/7/8/8.1 and Windows Server 2003/2008 R2/2012R2 for files and folders on an NTFS-formatted volume that provides certificate-based public key security for those files and folders. EFS encrypts and decrypts files in a manner that is transparent to users.
Scrambling and rearranging data in a file through use of an algorithm so the file cannot be read.
Event log subscription
An Event Viewer feature that enables you to collect event logs from a number of computers in a single, convenient location that helps you keep track of events that occur on these computers.
An administrative tool that enables an administrator to view and/or archive event logs such as the Operating System, Application, Setup, and Security logs. In Windows 8.1, this tool also enables you to configure event log subscriptions that collect events from several monitored computers.
One of the primary partitions that can be divided into multiple logical drives.
A special, high-speed network connectivity standard and protocol using optical fiber cables.
The basic window that displays contents of a drive or folder, previously called Windows Explorer.
A new feature in Windows 8.1 that preserves versions of user files in libraries, contacts, and favorites on a separate drive, typically every 10 minutes.
A means of grouping firewall rules so that they apply to the affected computers dependent on where the computer is connected.
A set of conditions used by Windows Firewall to determine whether a particular type of communication is permitted. You can configure inbound rules, outbound rules, and connection security rules from the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in.
Also known as IEEE 1394. FireWire is a fast, external bus technology that allows for up to 800 Mbps data transfer rates and can connect up to 63 devices. FireWire devices, although conforming to standards that Windows uses, usually require software from the manufacturer to utilize the specialized capabilities of the hardware.
A VHD that maintains the same size regardless of how much data is contained in it.
The practice of moving library folders to a different location, which is often a shared folder on a server. Used to facilitate management of storage space on the network and to ensure proper backup of vital data.
A method of interacting with a touch screen using hand swipes or finger touches. Gestures can include taps, straight lines, circles, or other more complicated figures involving multitouch screen readers.
Generic Identity Device Specification; a standard used for smart cards.
Global unicast IPv6 address
An IPv6 address that uses a global routing prefix of 45 bits to identify a specific organization's network, a 16-bit subnet ID, and a 64-bit interface ID. These addresses are globally routable on the Internet and are equivalent to public IPv4 addresses.
Global Positioning System, a technology deployed by the U.S. Department of Defense that uses a series of satellites in geosynchronous orbit to allow a receiver to determine its location on the surface of the earth.
A condition in which your computer saves everything to the hard disk and then powers down. When you restart your computer from hibernation, all open documents and programs are restored to the desktop.
A shared folder that does not broadcast its presence and is not browsable in the Network folder. A hidden share is indicated by a dollar sign ($) at the end of the folder name.
small group of Windows 8.1 computers that can exchange shared information easily with each other.
A computing device that has been assigned an IP address.
HTML5 sandbox attribute
A new object type supported by HTML version 5 that enhances security by enabling restrictions for web pages containing untrusted content.
An additional layer of software below the operating system for running virtual computers.
A process in Windows 8.1 that facilitates the task of users searching data contained in files on the computer so that users can rapidly locate information.
A message that Internet Explorer displays at the top of the page under certain circumstances to alert you of possible security problems. These messages include attempts by a website to install an ActiveX control, open a pop-up window, download a file, or run active content.
A special browsing mode of Internet Explorer 11 that prevents user information, cookies, and browsing history from being retained on the computer. This feature is particularly useful for public computers that are accessed by many individuals.
Input/Output (I/O) port address
Set of wires used to transmit data between a device and the system. As with IRQs, each component has a unique I/O port assigned. There are 65,535 I/O ports in a computer, and they are referenced by a hexadecimal address in the range of 0000h to FFFFh.
A set of applications and software running on a virtual guest that enables the hypervisor to control certain features and performance of the guest operating system.
Internet Connection Sharing (ICS)
The simplified system of routing Internet traffic through a Windows 8.1 computer so that other computers on the network that are not connected to the Internet can access the Internet.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
A TCP/IP protocol that enables hosts on a TCP/IP network to share status and error information. The ping command uses ICMP to check connectivity to remote computers.
Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2)
A tunneling protocol that uses IPSec Tunnel Mode over UDP port 500. This combination of protocols also supports strong authentication and encryption methods.
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)
An encryption and authentication protocol that is used to secure data transmitted across a network.
Interrupt Request (IRQ)
A set of wires that run between the CPU and devices in the computer; they enable devices to "interrupt" the CPU so that they can transmit data.
A logical address that is used to identify both a host and a network segment. Each network adapter on an IP network requires a unique IP address.
IP version 4 (IPv4)
The version of the Internet Protocol that has been in use for many years and provides a 32-bit address space formatted as four octets separated by periods.
IP version 6 (IPv6)
A newer version of the Internet Protocol that provides a 128-bit address space formatted as eight 16-bit blocks, each of which is portrayed as a 4-digit hexadecimal number and is separated from other blocks by colons.
The command-line utility that provides detailed information about the IP configuration of a Windows computer's network adapters.
A file format representing an optical disk image such as a DVD or CD.
The term given to packaging TCP/IP packet data, wrapped by routing headers with a larger amount of data. Typical frames contain 1500 bytes of payload data, while jumbo frames can carry up to 9000 bytes of data.
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)
A protocol that is used to create VPN tunnels across a public network. This protocol is used in conjunction with IPSec for security purposes.
A set of virtual folders that is shared by default with other users of the computer. It is used to group documents of similar type in an easily accessible place.
Link-local IPv6 address
A type of IPv6 address used for communication between neighboring nodes on the same link. Equivalent to IPv4 addresses configured using APIPA.
Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR)
The capability of computers running IPv6 on the local subnet to resolve each other's names without the need for a DNS server. It is enabled by default in Windows 8.1 IPv6.
A utility used by USMT to restore user settings and data to a new computer running Windows 8.1.
Local Security Policy
The security-based Group Policy settings that apply to a local computer and its local users.
Local user profile
The collection of Registry settings and files associated with a user's desktop interface that is created the first time a user logs on to a computer. This profile is stored on the local hard disk.
A network service that can identify a specific local network currently in use and adjust behavior based on the network location.
A segment of the extended partition that can be assigned a separate drive letter.
A user profile that is renamed to NTUser.man. This profile is read-only, such that any changes made to the user profile are never saved when the user logs off. Useful for setting company-specific desktop settings that users are not permitted to modify.
A metered connection is any network connection using a service that is charged based on the amount of data transferred. Many wireless broadband services, smartphone data plans, and satellite communication services use metered connections.
The original term Microsoft used for the new Start screen during development and Preview, which performs well with touch-enabled monitors that are standard on tablet devices and are available on many laptops and desktop monitors. It also performs well with traditional monitors and mice. This term was discontinued by Microsoft before Windows 8 was officially released, and replaced with "Windows 8," "Start screen," or "modern."
Previously called a Windows Live account; a cloud service account used to access Windows devices and integrate with cloud services and synchronize multiple devices.
Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol version 2 (MS-CHAPv2)
A Microsoft version of CHAP that uses the same type of challenge/response mechanism as CHAP but uses a nonreversible encrypted password. This is done by using MD4 algorithms to encrypt the challenge and the user's password.
A wireless display option, providing multidisplay capability for mobile devices.
A method of duplicating data between two separate hard disks so that the failure of one disk will not cause the operating system to fail.
Microsoft Management Console is the framework used for installing administrative tools, known as snap-ins, for various administrative tasks.
The command that opens the System Configuration utility, which you can use to perform actions such as modifying the startup scheme, the default operating system that boots on a dual-boot computer, services that are enabled, and startup programs that run automatically. You can also launch several computer management tools from this utility.
The command that opens the System Information program.
Multicast IPv6 address
An IPv6 address that enables the delivery of packets to each of multiple interfaces.
Network Address Translation (NAT)
A specification in TCP/IP that maps the range of private IP addresses (192.168.0.1-192.168.0.254) to the public IP address of an Internet-facing network adapter.
Network and Sharing Center
A feature of Windows 8.1 that provides a centralized location from which you can manage all networking tasks such as connecting to networks and the Internet and sharing of files and folders with users at other computers.
Network discovery is a feature of Windows networking used to allow computers to advertise themselves and locate and connect to other computers and network resources.
Near Field Communications is any set of enabling technologies for communicating between devices in very close proximity (a few inches).
Network interface card, or the hardware device used to connect the computer system to a media access layer of a network. Although termed a "card," many NICs are now integrated components of computers and other devices.
The security feature available in NTFS that allows you to grant or deny local access rights.
Nonuniform memory architecture is a memory allocation technology that groups memory locations and processors into nodes, to avoid performance issues caused by multiple processors attempting to access the same memory location, or accessing memory in a location slower to access for the processor that requests it.
Online Certificate Status Protocol is a network standard for verifying the status of certificates, retrieving revocation lists, and obtaining the certificate trust change of a X.509 certificate.
A feature built into Windows 2000/XP/Vista/7/8/8.1 that enables you to cache locally stored copies of shared files and folders so that you can work with them while offline and resynchronize your changes when you go back online.
Microsoft's integrated cloud storage for Windows 8.1, previously named SkyDrive. OneDrive is a cloud-based, always-available storage and file-sharing solution for Windows users.
A packaged app, also known as a Windows Store app, is a new kind of application with special characteristics. It runs full screen, makes use of tiles instead of icons, and can be installed and run without elevated privileges.
Virtual memory stored on disk that enables Windows 8.1 to run more applications at one time than would be allowed by the computer's physical memory (RAM).
A configured section of a basic disk that is capable of being formatted with a file system and identified with a drive letter.
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)
The oldest remote access authentication protocol, which sends the user's credentials over the wire in clear text and can easily be sniffed off the wire by an attacker.
A series of Group Policy settings that determine password security requirements, such as length, complexity, and age.
Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol, or PEAP, is an authentication protocol using extensible authentication wrapped in a secure TLS tunnel for encryption.
A statistical measurement associated with a performance object such as % disk time, queue length, and so on.
A Microsoft Management Console (MMC) application that contains several tools for monitoring your computer's performance.
Hardware or software components that the Performance Monitor can use for tracking performance data.
Pervasive Device Encryption
A Windows 8.1 disk encryption feature, supported on newer laptops and other mobile devices.
The use of a fake website that closely mimics a real website and contains a similar-looking URL. This site is intended to scam users into sending confidential personal information (such as credit card or bank account numbers, birthdates, Social Security numbers, and so on).
Personal Identification Number refers to any of a series of digital confirmation numbers required for use of a device or to supplement authentication of a device user.
Personal Identity Verification is a standard developed and published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to specify the security and encryption attributes of smart cards and their functions.
Public Key Infrastructure is the term for the various services and security devices used to implement encryption and identity certificates in an enterprise. The basis for PKI in a Windows Active Directory domain is the Active Directory Certificate Services and related server roles.
Plug and Play (PnP)
A standard developed by Microsoft and Intel that allows for automatic hardware installation detection and configuration in most Windows operating systems.
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
A dial-up protocol that supports TCP/IP and other protocols with advanced compression and encryption functions.
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)
A protocol that is used to create VPN tunnels across a public network and includes encryption and authentication.
Additional windows displayed on your browser by some websites that present advertisements or perform other actions, mostly of an undesirable nature. Internet Explorer 11 in Windows 8.1 includes a pop-up blocker that blocks the appearance of such windows and provides you with an option to display them if you desire.
A series of preconfigured power management options that control actions such as shutting off the monitor or hard disks or placing the computer in sleep mode or hibernation.
PowerShell Remoting is the framework within PowerShell and enabled by WinRM that allows administrators to run cmdlets and commands on remote computers.
A segment of the hard disk. A maximum of four primary partitions may exist on a single basic disk.
A piece of data generated by an asymmetric algorithm that's used by the host to decrypt data (for example, by using EFS). A matching public key can be used to encrypt data to be decrypted with the private key.
Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol-Transport Layer Security (PEAP-TLS)
A remote access authentication and security protocol that provides an encrypted authentication channel, dynamic keying material from TLS, fast reconnect using cached session keys, and server authentication that protects against the setup of unauthorized access points.
First introduced with Internet Explorer 7 in Windows Vista, this mode protects Internet Explorer by providing enhanced levels of security and protection from malware.
Public folder sharing
A simple Windows 8.1 folder sharing model that allows others on the network to access files in your Public folders of each Windows library (Documents, Pictures, Videos, and Music).
A piece of data generated by an asymmetric algorithm distributed to the public for general use. Used to encrypt data when using EFS. Such information can be decrypted only by the corresponding private key holder.
A feature in Windows 8.1 used to refresh the operating system back to the factory image. Push-button reset can optionally preserve user data, or it can be used to completely wipe any user files and settings from the device.
RADIUS, or Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service, is a network protocol used to centralize authentication of remote access users.
A combination of disk striping with parity data interleaved across three or more disks. RAID-5 provides improved disk performance and is fault-tolerant.
A user account that has been granted the authority to decrypt encrypted files.
A monitoring tool that provides a trend analysis of your computer's system stability with time. It shows how events such as hardware or application failures, software installations or removals, and so on affect your computer's stability.
A service available in Windows 8.1 that enables a user to share control of her computer with an administrator or other user to resolve a computer problem.
A service available in Windows 8.1 Pro or Enterprise that allows a single remote control session of a computer running Windows XP, Vista, 7, or 8.1. Remote Desktop uses the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), which is the same protocol used in Terminal Services.
Remote Desktop Gateway (RD Gateway)
A Windows Server feature that replaces the Terminal Services feature included with older versions of Windows Server. RD Gateway enables you to connect to remote servers on the corporate network from any computer that is connected to the Internet. You can publish applications to users on RD Gateway by using RemoteApp.
The process of deleting all private and personal information on a device connected to the Internet or other network, without any physical or direct access to the device. Remote Wipe is enabled at the server managing the device, and the next time the device attempts to connect to a network service, it receives a signal and initiates the wipe and reset process.
RemoteApp is a technology that enables you to make programs that are accessed remotely through Remote Desktop Services appear as if they are running on the end user's local computer.
A monitoring tool that provides a summary of CPU, disk, network, and memory performance statistics including minigraphs of recent performance of these four components as well as tabulated data pertaining to each of these components.
A user profile that is stored on a shared folder on a server so that a user receives the Registry settings and files for his desktop interface regardless of the computer to which he logs on.
A method of starting Windows 8.1 with only the basic drivers enabled so that you can troubleshoot problems that prevent Windows from starting normally.
A utility used by USMT to collect user settings and data on an old computer for purposes of migration to a Windows 8.1 computer.
Secure Boot is a technology in Windows 8.1 that protects the pre-OS environment of a computer, to ensure that all drivers and system loaders are authenticated and secure.
Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP)
A tunneling protocol that uses Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS) over TCP port 443 to transmit traffic across firewalls and proxy servers that might block PPTP and L2TP traffic.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
A protocol used to secure data transmitted via HTTPS through the use of public key/private key encryption.
Service pack (SP)
A collection of updates and fixes to a software package, usually available via download from the Internet. Service packs are available for download from Microsoft and when using the Microsoft automated update service.
Service Set Identifier (SSID)
A network name that identifies a wireless access point.
The application that installs Windows 8.1 on a new computer or updates an older Windows computer to Windows 8.1. Also frequently used as a routine for installing applications.
Backup copies of files and folders automatically created by Windows as you work on them, enabling you to restore them should they become corrupted or deleted.
Shared folder permissions
The security feature available when sharing files and folders across a network that allows you to grant or deny access rights to network users.
Folders that are made available for access by users who are working at another computer on the network.
A utility that checks your computer for unsigned device drivers.
Site-local IPv6 address
An IPv6 address that is private to the network on which it is located. This type of address cannot be accessed from locations external to its network, such as the Internet.
Second Level Address Translation is a processor feature, also known as Rapid Virtualization Indexing (RVI), that improves processor performance by managing memory with additional indexes or lookup tables.
A condition in which the computer consumes low power but is available for use. Sleep mode saves configuration information to memory and powers down the monitor, disks, and several other hardware components.
A device with an embedded microprocessor or data chip used for authentication and encryption.
A technique used in Hyper-V that minimizes the risk of running out of memory during virtual machine startup operations by swapping some of the requests for physical memory out to a special file on the disk drive.
SmartScreen is a feature in Windows 8.1 and Internet Explorer that works in conjunction with dynamically updated online databases to track malicious software and phishing sites to warn users of potential malware and identity theft sites.
An enhancement of the antiphishing and antimalware tools first introduced with Internet Explorer 7 that compares website addresses to a database that is continuously updated to protect users from fraudulent websites that attempt to steal identity information or install malicious software.
Software Restriction Policies
A series of settings included in Group Policy and Local Security Policy that can be used to limit the types of software that can run on a Windows XP/Vista/7/8.1 computer. You can limit users to running only those applications they need to do their jobs, and you can also prevent malicious applications from installing or running.
An old computer from which user settings and data are to be collected using the USMT, prior to repurposing or upgrading to Windows 8.1.
Special access permissions
A granular set of NTFS security permissions that enables a single type of access only. Regular NTFS permissions are actually a combination of special access permissions.
A utility that provides a diagnostics-based, step-by-step troubleshooter that enables end users and tech support personnel to rapidly diagnose and repair problems that are preventing a computer from starting normally.
A set of physical disk drives grouped together and used as the storage capacity for virtual storage spaces.
A virtual disk volume, optionally with resiliency, created from a pool of physical disks and used as a single disk drive.
A method of segmenting data and interleaving it across multiple disks, which has the effect of improving disk performance, but is not fault-tolerant.
A set of numbers, 32-bits in length, that begins with 1s and ends with 0s in binary notation. The number of 1s represents the number of bits that are considered the subnet address. The bits that are 0s are the host address. Using a subnet mask, you can create more subnets with a smaller number of computers per subnet. All computers on a given subnet must have the same subnet mask. Using dotted decimal notation, you write a subnet mask as 255.255.0.0 (which is the default mask for a Class B address).
A program on mobile computers that synchronizes data with other network devices, including servers, desktop computers, and other portable computers.
Situation that occurs when two users have modified a file that is available offline and Windows detects that conflicting modifications have occurred. Windows 8.1's Sync Center enables you to save either or both of these versions.
The act of copying files from a shared folder on the network to an offline files cache on a computer or copying the same files back to the shared folder after a user has modified them.
System access control list (SACL)
A list of actions that trigger audit events.
System Configuration utility
A tool that enables you to perform actions such as modifying the startup scheme, the default operating system that boots on a dual-boot computer, services that are enabled, and startup programs that run automatically. You can also launch several computer management tools from this utility. Started with the Msconfig.exe command.
A troubleshooting tool that provides several options for retaining copies of system files and settings so that you can configure how System Restore works to restore your computer to an earlier point in time.
A troubleshooting tool that enables you to restore your computer to an earlier time at which it was operating properly.
A Windows 8.1 administrative utility that provides data about currently running processes, including their CPU and memory usage, and enables you to modify their priority or shut down misbehaving applications. You can also manage services, including starting, stopping, enabling, and disabling them; obtain information on network utilization; and display users with sessions running on the computer.
A tunneling communication protocol that enables IPv6 connectivity between IPv6/IPv4 nodes across Network Address Translation (NAT) interfaces, thereby improving connectivity for newer IPv6-enabled applications on IPv4 networks.
TKIP, or Temporal Key Integrity Protocol, is an encryption standard used for wireless networking. It was the first successor to the weaker WEP encryption standard and incorporates several features to ensure unique encryption keys for every data packet, making it a much more challenging encryption methodology compared to WEP.
Trusted Platform Module is a hardware-level encryption and security device that works with firmware and operating systems to implement a complete secure environment from the hardware to the application layer.
The Unified Extensible Firmware Interface is a specification designed as a replacement for the older BIOS firmware on PCs. It defines the services and interface points between the computer firmware and the operating system.
A packaged set of updates that fixes problems with specific Windows components or software packages such as Microsoft Office.
USB recovery drive
A USB thumb drive or portable hard drive on which copies of files required to start your computer are used if a problem has prevented your computer from starting properly.
User Account Control (UAC)
A feature in Windows 8.1 that enables you to work with a nonadministrative user account. UAC displays a prompt that requests approval when you want to perform an administrative task. Should malicious software attempt to install itself or perform undesirable actions, you receive a prompt that you can use to prevent such actions from occurring. First introduced in Windows Vista, UAC has been updated in Windows 8.1 to provide new configuration options and reduce the number of prompts.
A series of user-specific settings that is composed of desktop settings, files, application data, and the specific environment established by the user.
User State Migration Tool (USMT)
A program that migrates a large number of users from an old computer to a new Windows 8.1 computer. This program uses two executables, ScanState.exe and LoadState.exe, together with a series of .xml configuration files, to migrate user files and settings. You can script this program to facilitate large migrations.
A utility used for low-level debugging of device driver issues.
Virtual floppy disk, a representation of floppy disk images stored in a disk file.
Virtual hard disk, a representation of a hard drive of specific geometry stored in a disk file.
A new format for virtual hard disks optimized for use by Hyper-V virtual machines.
Virtual hard disk (VHD)
A file that includes all the files and folders that would be found on a hard disk partition.
A computer running inside another operating system or hypervisor, sharing the hardware resources of the host and behaving as it would running on a physical computer.
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
A remote access connection technology that uses a protocol such as Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) or L2TP with IPSec to tunnel through a public network to connect to a private network and maintain a secure connection.
A software representation of a network switch, configured in software and used to connect virtual machines in a Hyper-V environment.
The process of creating software representations of physical computer components that behave like their physical counterparts.
Virtual local area networks (VLANs) are creating by use of special routing or virtual switches that tag network packets with VLAN ID numbers, which are then used to divide a network space into individual and separate LAN segments.
A logical drive that has been formatted for use by a file system. Although often considered synonymous with "partition," a volume is most specifically a portion of a dynamic disk, or multiple sections of dynamic disks, that is capable of being formatted with a file system and being identified with a drive letter.
VT represents Intel's technology for virtualization on the x86 platform. Not all Intel processors support VT; support for VT may vary between different versions of the same model number. As of May 2011, the Intel CPU P6100 which is used in laptops does not support hardware virtualization.
A wireless access point is a router or other device that broadcasts wireless signals to computers on a wireless local area network (WLAN). Also known as an access point (AP). Computers connecting through a WAP are members of an infrastructure (as opposed to ad hoc) wireless network.
A command-line utility that provides a comprehensive system backup function in a scriptable form.
WDS Windows Deployment Services (WDS)
WDS is Microsoft's technology that enables deployment of Windows operating systems over the network, without requiring the use of a CD or DVD for each install.
A new protocol and application programming interface (API) defined for HTML version 5 that allows for fast, two-way communication between a web-based application and a web server.
WEP, or Wired Equivalent Privacy, is the original encryption standard used on 802.11 wireless networks. It has a number of vulnerabilities that have prompted security experts to recommend against its use whenever possible.
A new industry standard connectivity technology in Windows 8.1 that enables data and content sharing between devices and PCs on a peer-to-peer network that does not require separate Wi-Fi access points.
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
A wireless authentication protocol that uses preshared network key encryption to ensure that only authorized users receive access to the network. There are several flavors, including WPA2-Personal and WPA2-Enterprise.
A technique that sweeps the current area for Wi-Fi access points and cross-references the information, including the strength of each signal, with a database of locations to determine the location of a computer in range of those access points.
Windows 8.1 Upgrade Assistant
A utility that you can download from Microsoft that determines what hardware or software problems you might encounter in upgrading an older Windows computer to Windows 8.1.
Windows Easy Transfer
A program that facilitates the migration of user files from an old computer to a new Windows 8.1 computer. Windows Easy Transfer replaces the Files and Settings Transfer Wizard used with Windows XP.
The personal firewall software incorporated in Windows 8.1 that filters incoming TCP/IP traffic. Windows Firewall was first introduced in Windows XP SP2.
Windows Firewall with Advanced Security
A Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in that enables you to configure comprehensive firewall rules specifying conditions for external connection to your computer. Default inbound, outbound, and connection security rules are provided; you can modify these rules or create new rules as required.
Windows Hardware Certification Program
A Microsoft program that identifies all hardware certified to run properly on Windows 8.1 computers. It replaces the Windows Logo program previously used with Windows 7 computers.
Windows Mobility Center
An application that runs on all Windows 8.1 mobile computers that provides a quick view of functions pertinent to mobile computers, such as battery status, wireless network connections, sync partnerships, presentation settings, and so on. You can configure common mobile computer settings, such as display settings, speaker volume, and battery status.
An enhanced task-based command-line scripting interface that enables you to perform a large number of remote management tasks.
Windows Recovery Environment (Windows RE)
A parallel, minimum Windows installation that enables you to boot your computer when your Windows 8.1 installation will not start using any of the other advanced startup modes. You can perform advanced recovery operations after you boot into Windows RE.
Windows Remote Management (WinRM) Service
The Microsoft implementation of the WS-Management Protocol, which is a protocol that assists you in managing hardware on a network that includes machines that run a diverse mix of operating systems including remote computers.
Windows RT 8.1
The version of Windows 8.1 especially designed for running on mobile platforms utilizing the ARM architecture, such as smartphones and tablets.
Windows Server Update Services (WSUS)
A service that can be configured to run on a server, supplying updates, hotfixes, and other patches automatically to computers on a network. WSUS enables you to deploy and manage updates that are downloaded from the Microsoft Windows Update website to WSUS servers running on your own network. Client computers simply connect to the local WSUS server to download and install updates.
Windows To Go
A bootable version of Windows 8.1 contained on a USB drive. It includes all operating system files, applications, and Windows settings, and can be used to boot a computer with the appropriate hardware into Windows 8.1, independently of the operating system installed on this computer.
A service provided by Microsoft to keep Windows operating systems and software up-to-date, automatically by default, and to provide patches that keep the operating system and application secure when vulnerabilities are discovered.
Windows XP Mode
The basic virtualization technology introduced in Windows Vista for running an instance of Windows XP within a Vista or Windows 7 operating system. Replaced by Client Hyper-V in Windows 8.1.
A folder created when upgrading an older version of Windows to a newer one. It contains subfolders containing operating system files, user files, and program files, some of which you can migrate to your newer Windows operating system.
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
A protocol that is used on 802.11-based wireless networks to encrypt data sent between computers on a wireless network or between a computer and its access point. WEP is better security than an open network but is considered less secure than WPA.
Wireless network profile
A series of configuration settings that determine the extent of access to external computers according to your computer's location. Windows enables you to create profiles for Home, Work, and Public locations.
Wireless local area network is synonymous with a local area network (LAN) using wireless equipment and signaling.
WPA and WPA2
WPA, or Wi-Fi Protected Access (and the next version, WPA2), is a security protocol developed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to secure wireless networks. WPA2 incorporates stronger AES-based encryption, and devices are subject to security certification by the Wi-Fi Alliance.
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