51 terms

CONSONANTS: obstruents and sonorants


Terms in this set (...)

Obstruents (types)
Articulated with a complete obstruction of the mouth passage, entirely blocking air-flow for a moment (closure, hold, release -> sudden rapid explosition)
The plosives are:
/p - b - t - d - k - g/
Types of release
1 - Lateral
2 - Nasal
3 - Inaudible
Audible puff of breath between /p - t - k/ and a (stressed) vowel
Way in which a sound of speech is articulated,
e.g. plosive, affricate, fricative, lateral ..
Where in the mouth the sound of speech is articulated,
e.g. bilabial, labio-dental, dental, alveolar...
Vocal folds: wide vs. together (voiced or voiceless)
Bilabial plosive
/p - b/
Bilabial plosive: explenation
Closure between two lips
Alveolar plosive
/t - d/
Alveolar plosive: explenation
Tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge
Velar plosive
/k - g/
Velar plosive: explenation
Back of the tongue against the velum (soft palate)
AE voiced/ tapped T
1 - Between vowels
2 - Between vowel and syllabic /r - l/
3 - After /r - n/
Glottal stop
Glottal stop: explenation
Closure in the glottis, air compressed beneath, sudden opening of vocal folds --> air released
*not used in transcription
Articulated with first a complete obstruction and then a narrowing of the mouth passage (close, hold, release (gradual))
The affricates are:
/tʃ - dʒ/
Postalveolar affricates
/tʃ - dʒ/
Postalveolar affricates: explenation
Tongue against the back of the alveolar ridge, then lowered slightly -> friction (gradual release). The friction occurs when the air-stream is released
Articulated by narrowing the mouth passage so as to make the air-flow turbulent, while allowing it to pass through continuously (incomplete closure, narrowing, air is forced -> friction)
The fricatives are:
/f - v - θ - ð - s - z - ʃ - ʒ - h/
Narrow opening: loud "hissing (stronger") friction
The sibilants are:
/s - z - ʃ - ʒ/
Wider opening: weaker friction
The non-sibilants are:
/f - v - θ - ð - h/
Labio dental fricatives
/f - v/
Labio dental fricatives: explenation
The lower lip (labium) held very close to the upper teeth (dentes)
Dental fricatives
/θ - ð/
Dental fricatives: explenation
The tip of the tongue held very close to the front teeth (dentes)
Alveolar fricatives
/s - z/
Alveolar fricatives: explenation
The tip & blade of the tongue held close to the alveolar ridge
Postalveolar fricatives
/ʃ - ʒ/
Postalveolar fricatives: explenation
Blade of the tongue held close to the back of the alveolar ridge (lip rounding)
Glottal fricative
Glottal fricative: expleation
Strong air-stream through the glottis & out of the mouth
Relatively free flow of air, normally voiced (can be devoiced)
Sonorants (types)
Velum is lowered, and there is an obstruction in the mouth, all the air is released through the nose.
The nasals are:
/m - n - ŋ/
Bilabial nasal /m/
Closure between two lips, velum is lowered (nasal)
Alveolar nasal /n/
Tip of the tongue is against the ALVEOLAR RIDGE, velum is lowered (nasal)
Velar nasal /ŋ/
Back of the tongue against the VELUM, velum is lowered (nasal), the velar nasal is only found after vowels (n+g/k)
The air-stream proceeds on the sides of the tongue, but is blocked by the tongue to be released through the middle of the tongue.

Alveolar lateral /l/
Alveolar lateral /l/
Tip of the tongue against the ALVEOLAR RIDGE, sides of the tongue are lowered, the air escapes laterally.
One articulator approaches another (but they don't meet), and the air flows relatively freely
The approximants are:
/j - w - r/
Palatal approximant /j/
Front of the tongue raised towards the HARD PALATE, but they don't meet (approximant)
Bilabial-velar approximant /w/
The lips are rounded, and the back of the tongue os raised towards VELUM, but they don't meet (approximant)
Post-alveolar approximant /r/
Tip of the tongue near the BACK part of the ALVEOLAR RIDGE (near - don't meet, approximant)