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Prentice Hall Earth Science


a lump or mass of hard consolidated mineral matter

Igneous Rock

a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface

Sedimentary Rock

rocks fromed from sediment derived not only from rock fragments but also from plant and animal remains

Metamorphic Rock

A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions

Rock Cycle

a series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another


a molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle


rock that in its molten form (as magma) issues from volcanos


The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.


Loose materials such as rock fragments, mineral grains, and bits of shell that have been moved by wind, water, ice, or gravity.

Intrusive Igneous Rock

rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath Earth's surface

Extrusive Igneous Rock

rock that forms from the cooling and solidification of lava at Earth's surface

Porphyritic Texture

An igneous rock texture in which large crystals are scattered on a background of much smaller crystals.

Granitic Composition

group of igneous rocks, light colored silicates, mainly quartz and feldspar

Basaltic Composition

Rocks that contain many dark silicate minerals and plagioclase feldspar

Andesitic Composition

..., the composition of igneous rocks lying between felsic and mafic.


..., igneous rock composed mainly of iron and magnesium-rich minerals


..., condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind


..., the natural process of laying down a deposit of something


..., The process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight.


..., The process by which dissolved minerals crystalize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass.

Clastic Sedimentary Rock

..., Sedimentary rock that forms when fragments of preexisting rocks are compacted or cemented together.

Chemical Sedimentary Rock

..., sedimentary rock that forms when minerals precipitate from a solution or settle from a suspension.


..., change in the structure of rock by natural agencies such as pressure or heat of introduction of new chemical substances

Contact Metamorphism

..., a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with magma.

Regional Metamorphism

..., a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to changes in temperature and pressure over a large area, generally as a result of tectonic forces


..., referring to hot water, such as that produced in the hydrothermal volcanic vents in the sea floor


..., a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

Foliated Metamorphic Rock

..., a kind of metamorphic rock in which heat and pressure arrange the minerals in the rock into layers

Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rock

..., metamorphic rock that does not exhibit a banded or layered appearance

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