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-conscious or subconscious awareness of changes in the internal or external environment.
- each unique one has its own modality
-there are general and special types
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information by the cerebral cortex of the brain
Free Nerve Endings
-bare dendrites of sensory receptors.
-transmit the feeling of pain,temperature,tickling, itch and touch
Encapsulated Nerve Endings
-Dendrites enclosed in a CT capsule
-transmit sensation of pressure,vibration,and touch
-located in muscles, tendons, inner ear, and joints
-allow the body to know its position even when moving
-sensitive to deformation, stretching, and bending of cells
-function in touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception, hearing and equilibrium
-Sensation necessary for survival
-In all tissues of the body except the brain
-React to chemicals released from damaged tissue as well as excessive stretching, muscle spasms and ischemia.
regions of the body sense pain on the surface from an internal source
ex) pain in left arm during a heart-attack
conduct impulses from the thalamus to the primary somatosensory area of the cerebral cortex
Impulses of touch,pressure,vibration,conscious perception of limbs, trunk,neck and posterior head ascend to the cerebral cortex.
Anteriolateral (Spinothalamic) Pathway
Sensory input for pain,temperature,itch and tickle ascend to the cerebral cortex
Direct (Pyramidal) Pathway
1)Corticospinal pathway from motor cortex to skeletal muscles in limbs and trunk
2)Corticobulbar connect the motor cortex to muscles in the head
Indirect (Extra Pyramidal) Pathway
-Travel from cerebral cortex through nuclei of cell bodies
-include rubrospinal, tectospinal, vestibulospinal, lateral reticulospinal, and medial reticulospinal pathways
-Influence muscle tone as well as sensory,limbic,cognitive and linguistic functions.
-Function in the initiation and termination of movements
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