79 terms

Final Exam Terms Chapters 2-5

STUDY
PLAY
Major functions of a computer
Input, process, output, storage
Binary language
Basic form of computer language
Binary digit (bit)
A digit that corresponds to the on and off states of a computer's switches. A bit contains a value of either 0 or 1
Byte
Eight bits
Kilobyte
1,000 bytes
Megabyte
1 million bytes
Gigabyte
1 billion bytes
Terabytes
1 trillion bytes
Perabyte
1,000 terabytes
Motherboard
The main circuit board that contains the central electronic components of the computer
Peripheral device
A component, such as a monitor or keyboard, that connects to the computer through a data port
Function keys
Shortcut keys to perform special tasks in software
Control keys
Used with other keys to perform shortcuts
Toggle keys
Keys whose function changes between two options such as Caps Lock key
Windows key
Used alone, it toggles between the Start screen and the foremost running app. Used with other keys, it performs shortcuts
Pixel
Monitor screens are grids made up of millions of tiny dots
Screen resolution
The number of pixels on the screen
Contrast ratio
Difference in light intensity between the brightest white and the darkest black a monitor can produce
Volatile storage
The entire contents of this type of memory are erased when you turn off the computer
Nonvolatile storage
Permanent storage, as in read-only memory (ROM)
Examples of volatile storage
RAM
Examples of nonvolatile storage
ROM, HDD, flash drive, flash memory card
Hertz (Hz)
Measurement of machine cycles per second. Measures processor speed.
Megahertz (MHz)
1 million machine cycles per second
Gigahertz (GHz)
1 billion machine cycles per second
Cores (processing paths)
Determine CPU performance. If there are multiple processing paths then they can process more than one instruction at a time
Port
A place through which a peripheral device attaches to the computer so that data can be exchanged between them
Network Interface Controller (NIC)
Expansion card on the motherboard that provides a means for network and Internet connections
Solid-state drive (SSD)
The type of hard drive that has no moving parts, so they are more efficient, run with no noise, emit little heat, and require little power
Optical storage
In this storage data are saved as tiny pits that are burned into the disc by high speed laser
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
The protocol that allows files to be transferred from a web server so that you can see them on your computer by using a browser
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
A protocol used to upload and download files from one computer to another over the Internet
URL
Unique address of a Website
Web browser
Software to locate, navigate, and view webpages
Server
Computer that receives request for data (e.g. HTML pages) and returns the data
Client
Computer that requests the data (e.g. HTML pages)
IP address
Also known as dotted quad because it consists of four numbers separated by periods. A unique identification number assigned to each computer connected to the Internet
Secure socket layer (SSL)
Protocol to manage the security of the website by encrypting the data exchanged in that site
Domain name
A part of the URL. Domain names consist of two parts: the site's host and a suffix that indicates the type of organization (example: udel.edu, where udel is the domain name and .edu is the suffix)
Top-level domain
The suffix, often of three letters (such as .com or .edu) in the domain name that indicates the kind of organization the host is
Business to consumer (B2C)
The type of e-commerce that facilitates transactions between business organizations and individual consumers
Business to business (B2B)
The type of e-commerce that facilitates transactions between business organizations and business organizations
Consumer to consumer (C2C)
The type of e-commerce that facilitates transactions between individual consumers and individual consumers
Application software
The set of programs on a computer that helps a user carry out tasks such as word processing, sending e-mail, balancing a budget, creating presentations, editing photos, taking an online course, and playing games
System software
It helps run the computer and coordinate instructions between application software and the computer's hardware
Proprietary software
Software that you must buy because it is owned by an individual or company
Open source software
Free software that is available with few licensing and copyright restrictions
Software as a Service (SaaS)
Vendor hosts the software online and the user accesses and uses the software over the Internet
Web based application
A program that's hosted on a website and that doesn't require installation on the computer
Database software
An electronic filing system best used for larger and more complicated groups of data that require more than one table and the ability to group, sort, and retrieve data and generate reports
Wizard
MS Office feature that walks user through the steps necessary to complete a complicated task
Template
A pre-designed form providing basic structure for a particular kind of document, spreadsheet, or presentation
Macro
A small program that groups a series of commands so that they will run as a single command
Beta version
A version of the software that's still under development. Many beta versions are available for a limited trial period and are used to help the developers correct any errors before they launch the software on the market
Software license
An agreement between the user and software company that must be made before installing the software on a machine
Full installation
The process of installing all the files and programs from the distribution media to the computer's hard drive
Custom installation
The process of installing only those features of a software program that a user wants on the hard drive
System requirements
Specifying the minimum recommended standards for the operating systems, processor, primary memory (RAM), and hard drive capacity
Operating System (OS)
The system software that controls the way in which a computer system functions, including the management of hardware, peripherals, and software
Utility program
A small program that performs many of the general housekeeping tasks for the computer, such as the system maintenance and file compression
UNIX
An operating system originally conceived in 1969 by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie of AT&T's Bell Labs. In 1974, the UNIX code was rewritten in the standard programming language C. Today there are various commercial versions of UNIX
OS X
The operating system for Apple products
Android
The operating system for Google products
Linux
An open source OS
User interface
Part of the operating system that enables individuals to interact with the computer
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Display graphics and use the point-and-click technology of the mouse and cursor, making them much more user friendly
Device driver
A special program that comes with every hardware that facilitates communcation
Plug and Play (PnP)
The technology that enables the operating system, once it is booted up, to recognize automatically any new peripherals and to configure them to work with the system
Basic input/output system (BIOS)
Stored in ROM, responsible for managing the exchange of data between the OS and all the input and output devices attached to the system, and loading the OS into RAM from the hard drive
Read-only memory (ROM)
A set of memory chips, located on the motherboard, which stores data and instructions that cannot be changed or erased; it holds all the instructions the computer needs to start up. Non-volatile memory storing BIOS.
Directory
A hierarchical structure that includes files, folders, and drives used to create a more organized and efficient computer
Root directory
The top level of the filing structure in a computer system. In Windows computers, the root directory of the hard drive is represented as C:\
File
A collection of program instructions or data
Folder
A collection of files
Bugs
Error, flaw, failure, or fault in a computer program or system
File path
The exact location of a file, starting with the drive in which the file is located and including all folders, subfolders (if any), the file name, and the extension (example: C:\Users\username\Documents\Illustrations\EBronte.jpg)
File extension
Written after the file name (.docx, .xlsx)
Disk defragmenter
Utility program to group together related pieces of files on the hard drive, allowing OS to work more efficiently
System restore
A utility in Windows that restores system settings to a specific previous date when everything was working properly
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